True regarding the disorder as shown in the picture below?
A. Histamine may play a role
B. Deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor
C. Bradykinin may play a role
D. All of the above
Ans:D. All of the Above.
The condition shown in the image is Angioedema
- It is the swelling of deep dermis, subcutaneous, or submucosal tissue due to vascular leakage.
- Acute episodes often involve the lip, eyes, and face however, angioedema may affect other parts of body, including respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa. Laryngeal swelling can be life-threatening.
- Angioedema is a result of the fast onset of an increase in local vascular permeability in subcutaneous or submucosal tissue.
- Histamine and bradykinin are the most recognized vasoactive mediators known to be critical in the pathologic process of angioedema.
- Hereditary angioedema (HAE), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor–induced angioedema, and certain idiopathic angioedemas are examples of bradykinin-mediated angioedema.
- C1-INH is a serine protease that is involved in the regulation of bradykinin. Low levels of this protease (either hereditary or acquired) results in unchecked activation of the kallikrein-kinin system, which leads to the overproduction of bradykinin