The skin condition shown in the photograph above represents Scalded Skin Syndrome.
Scalded Skin Syndrome
- It encompasses a spectrum of superficial blistering skin disorders caused by the exfoliative toxins of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
- It is a syndrome of acute exfoliation of the skin typically following an erythematous cellulitis.
- It is caused by an exfoliative(epidermolytic) toxin produced by roughly 5% of Staphylococcus aureus.
- Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is most common in children and neonates.
- A prodromal localized S aureus infection of the skin, throat, nose, mouth, umbilicus, or GI tract occurs followed by macular erythema which is followed by diffuse epidermal exfoliation.
- Two exfoliative toxins (ETA and ETB) have been isolated and characterized.
- Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome differs from bullous impetigo. Both are blistering skin diseases caused by staphylococcal exfoliative toxin. However, in bullous impetigo, the exfoliative toxins are restricted to the area of infection, and bacteria can be cultured from the blister contents. In staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, the exfoliative toxins are spread hematogenously from a localized source potentially causing epidermal damage at distant sites. Therefore, cultures of the bullous material are sterile.
- Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome differs from the more severe toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), in that the cleavage site in staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is intraepidermal, as opposed to TEN, which involves necrosis of the full epidermal layer (at the level of the basement membrane).TEN is most commonly drug induced.
Toxin mediated illness caused by staphylococcus aureus are :
- Toxic shock syndrome
- Food poisoning
- Stapyphylococcus scalded-skin syndrome
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis