Author: Neelam Maurya

Vitamin C Deficiency- Scurvy

Vitamin C Deficiency- Scurvy


Vitamin C Deficiency

1. Scurvy-

  • Petechaie, ecchymosis, bleeding gums, joint effusion, fatigue.
  • Perifollicular haemorrhages
  • Hyperkeratotic papules
  • Anemia
  • Late stages characterized by edema, oliguria, neuropathy, death.
  • Bowing of legs is seen in Scurvy.
  • Radiological signs of scurvy are Winberger sign, Trimmerfeld zone, Frenkel’s line , Pelican spur, Bony thickening, Metaphyseal porosis, Metapyseal infarction, Metaphyseal calcification, Epiphyseal separation, Cortical spur
  • ‘Pelkan spur’ is a radiological feature of Scurvy.
  • Exhaustive treatise on scurvy was published by James Lind

       2. Barlows Syndrome (Infantile Scurvy)- 6-12 months 

 Vitamin C Toxicity-

  • Gastric irritation, diarrhea, oxalate stones.

Exam Important

Vitamin C Deficiency-

1. Scurvy-

  • Petechaie, ecchymosis, bleeding gums, joint effusion, fatigue.
  • Perifollicular haemorrhages
  • Hyperkeratotic papules
  • Anemia
  • Late stages characterized by edema, oliguria, neuropathy, death.
  • Bowing of legs is seen in Scurvy.
  • Radiological signs of scurvy are Winberger sign, Trimmerfeld zone, Frenkel’s line , Pelican spur, Bony thickening, Metaphyseal porosis, Metapyseal infarction, Metaphyseal calcification, Epiphyseal separation, Cortical spur

 2. Barlows Syndrome (Infantile Scurvy)- 6-12 months

Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Vitamin C Deficiency- Scurvy

Module Below Start Quiz

Vitamin C Deficiency- Scurvy

Vitamin C Deficiency- Scurvy

Q. 1

True about scurvy is:

 A

Skeletal changes in adults occur with deficiency of vitamin C.

 B

Defective mineralization is the central cause of bone changes

 C

Bowing of legs

 D

Cartilaginous overgrowth results in widening of the metaphyseal plate.

Q. 1

True about scurvy is:

 A

Skeletal changes in adults occur with deficiency of vitamin C.

 B

Defective mineralization is the central cause of bone changes

 C

Bowing of legs

 D

Cartilaginous overgrowth results in widening of the metaphyseal plate.

Ans. C

Explanation:

Bowing of legs [Ref: Robbins 7/e p458; Nelson 18/c p251; Grainger Radiology 4/e p1942/

  • Scurvy results from a long-term deficiency of vitamin C.
  • Humans are unable to synthesize vitamin C, due to lack of the enzyme gulonolactone oxidase and therefore depend on dietary sources.
  • Vitamin C is not stored in the body, but is taken up by all tissues; the highest levels are found in the pituitary and adrenal glands.
  • This disorder occurs more frequently in children (particularly infants) than in adults, and for the most part, results from a diet of pasteurized or boiled milk. (This type of milk is deficient in vitamin C because the vitamin is inactivated by heat).
  • For scurvy to develop, the deficiency must be present for a long time of approx. 4 to 6 months. Therefore it is unlikely that the disorder will be seen before the age of 4-6 months.
  • The occurrence of scurvy in adults is rare, being seen mostly in patients suffering from chronic severe malnutrition.
  • Vitamin C is essential for the hydroxylation of lysine and proline in collagen formation.
  • The defect in collagen synthesis results in inadequate support of the walls of capillaries and venules leading to bleeding in the skin and in the gingival mucosa, haemarthroses, and subperiosteal hemorrhages. The gums are swollen and bleed easily. Bleeding in the skin causes petechiae, eccyhmoses, perifollicular hemorrhages.
  • Skeletal changes may also develop in infants and children. The pritnaly disturbance is in the formation of osteoid matrix, rather than in mineralization or calcification. (Rickets is characterized by the presence of excess osteoid and lack of calcification; whereas scurvy is associated with deficient osteoid and much calcified cartilage). The potential for skeletal lesions diminish with increasing age.
  • The skeletal changes are most pronounced in regions of active endochondral bone growth and therefore are best seen in the distal end of the long bones particularly of the lower extremity. Changes at the sternal ends of the ribs cause scorbutic rosary formation.

Key imaging features of scurvy or Vit. “C” Def

  • Osteoporosis
  • White line of Frank! (irregular but thickened white line at the growth plate, it represents the zone of well-calcified cartilage).
  • Pelkan’s spur (the zone of calcification extends beyond the margins of the metaphyses, resulting in periosteal elevation and inetaphyseal spurs)
  • Trummerfield zone or scurvy line (a transverse band of radioluscency subjacent to the white line of Frank!)
  • Winiberger’s sign (thin ring of increased density surrounding epiphyses)
  • Periosteal elevation (due to subperiosteal hemorrhage)
  • The weakened bones yield to the stresses of weight bearing and muscle tension, with bowing of the long bones of the lower legs and abnormal depression of the sternum.
  • Wound and fracture healing is impaired due to derangement of collagen synthesis.
  • Laboratory diagnosis of vitamin C deficiency is made on the basis of low plasma or leukocyte levels.

Q. 2

Primary metabolic bone disorder in scurvy is:

 A

Decreased mineralization

 B

Decreased osteoid matrix formation

 C

Increased bone resorption

 D

Decreased bone mass with normal mineralization and osteoid formation

Q. 2

Primary metabolic bone disorder in scurvy is:

 A

Decreased mineralization

 B

Decreased osteoid matrix formation

 C

Increased bone resorption

 D

Decreased bone mass with normal mineralization and osteoid formation

Ans. B

Explanation:

There is disturbance in osteoid formation in scurvy. Decreased mineralization or calcification is characteristic of rickets. Reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption is seen in Ostoprorosis and diseases associated with increased PTH.

 

 

 

Ref: Robbin’s Basic Pathology, 7th Edition, Page 299; Essential Pediatrics, OP Ghai 6th Edition, Page 126

 


Q. 3

Exhaustive treatise on scurvy was published by:

 A

John Snow

 B

James Lind

 C

H. Khorana

 D

James Lister

Q. 3

Exhaustive treatise on scurvy was published by:

 A

John Snow

 B

James Lind

 C

H. Khorana

 D

James Lister

Ans. B

Explanation:

James Lind was a Scottish physician. In 1753 he published a treatise of the scurvy was published by James Lind.

Scurvy is a disease now known to be caused by a Vitamin C deficiency, but in Lind’s day, the concept of vitamins was unknown.

Ref: Diseases: Finding the Cure By Robert Mulcah.

Quiz In Between


Q. 4

In vitamin C deficiency, post translational modification of which amino acid is defective:

 A

Lysine

 B

Alanine

 C

Glycine

 D

Arginine

Q. 4

In vitamin C deficiency, post translational modification of which amino acid is defective:

 A

Lysine

 B

Alanine

 C

Glycine

 D

Arginine

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Lysine

– Both vitamin C and vitamin K are required for post translational modificationQ.

Vitamin C is required for post translational modification of proline & lysine in collagen synthesisQ.

Vit K is required for post translational modification of glutamate residue for generation of clotting factorsQ.



Q. 5

Definitive sign of scurvy in X-ray –

 A

Ringed epiphysis

 B

Ground glass appearance

 C

White line in metaphysis

 D

Thin cortex

Q. 5

Definitive sign of scurvy in X-ray –

 A

Ringed epiphysis

 B

Ground glass appearance

 C

White line in metaphysis

 D

Thin cortex

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., White line in metaphysis

o Ringed epiphysis (Wimburger sign): It is white ring surrounding the epiphyseal centres of ossicification. It is relatively specific for scurvy.

  • White line in metaphysis (Freaenkel) can be seen in scurvy, healing rickets, Plumbism, severe PEM, congenital syphilis and acute leukemia

o Option b & d are not specific for scurvy.


Q. 6

Radiological findings of scurvy are A/E:

 A

Epiphyseal widening

 B

Metaphyseal porosis

 C

Metapyseal infarction

 D

Pelkan spur

Q. 6

Radiological findings of scurvy are A/E:

 A

Epiphyseal widening

 B

Metaphyseal porosis

 C

Metapyseal infarction

 D

Pelkan spur

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Epiphyseal widening

Quiz In Between


Q. 7

About scurvy, all are true EXCEPT:      

September 2012

 A

Subperiosteal hematomas with tenderness

 B

Separation of epiphysis

 C

Raised serum alkaline phosphatase

 D

Gingival bleeding

Q. 7

About scurvy, all are true EXCEPT:      

September 2012

 A

Subperiosteal hematomas with tenderness

 B

Separation of epiphysis

 C

Raised serum alkaline phosphatase

 D

Gingival bleeding

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. C i.e. Raised serum alkaline phosphatase

Scurvy

  • Bleeding into skin & joints,
  • Wimberger sign,
  • Pseudoparalysis etc.

Q. 8

All of the following are the features of scurvy except:

September 2009

 A

Hyperkeratosis

 B

Ecchymosis of lower limbs

 C

Hypoglycemia

 D

Bleeding gums

Q. 8

All of the following are the features of scurvy except:

September 2009

 A

Hyperkeratosis

 B

Ecchymosis of lower limbs

 C

Hypoglycemia

 D

Bleeding gums

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. C: Hypoglycemia

One of the first signs of scurvy is the development of perifollicular hyperkeratotic papules, often on the shins. These appear as reddish/bluish bruise-like spots surrounding hair follicles. The central hairs are twisted like corkscrews that may break easily. The papules may join together to form large areas of palpable purpura or ecchymoses (bruises).

  • Gums may swell and become red, soft and spongy. Any slight friction may cause the gums to bleed. Often this results in poor oral hygiene and dental diseases.
  • Bleeding in the joints causes extreme discomfort and pain. Joints may be swollen and tender and the pain can be so severe that patients cannot walk.
  • Patients may complain of dryness, irritation, light intolerance, transient visual blurring and stickiness. Haemorrhaging (bleeding) beneath the conjunctiva and within the optic nerve sheath may also occur.
  • Anemia develops in 75% of patients as a result of blood loss into tissue, altered absorptions and metabolism of iron and folate, gastrointestinal bleeding and intravascular haemolysis.
  • Shortness of breath, low blood pressure, and chest pain leading to shock and death.

Q. 9

In scurvy all of the following radiological signs are seen except:

 A

Pelican spur

 B

Soap bubble appearance

 C

Zone of demarcation near epiphysis

 D

Frenkel’s line

Q. 9

In scurvy all of the following radiological signs are seen except:

 A

Pelican spur

 B

Soap bubble appearance

 C

Zone of demarcation near epiphysis

 D

Frenkel’s line

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. Soap bubble appearance

Quiz In Between


Q. 10

Deficiency of which vitamin causes excretion of xantheurenic acid in urine ‑

 A

Folic acid

 B

Pyridoxin

 C

Niacin

 D

Vitamin B12

Q. 10

Deficiency of which vitamin causes excretion of xantheurenic acid in urine ‑

 A

Folic acid

 B

Pyridoxin

 C

Niacin

 D

Vitamin B12

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Pyridoxin


Q. 11

Vitamin C deficiency causes ‑

 A

Rickets

 B

Scurvy

 C

Beri-Ben

 D

Megaloblastic anemia

Q. 11

Vitamin C deficiency causes ‑

 A

Rickets

 B

Scurvy

 C

Beri-Ben

 D

Megaloblastic anemia

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Scurvy

  • Vitamin C deficiency causes scurvy.

Quiz In Between



Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)


VITAMIN B7 (BIOTIN)

  • Also called as anti-egg white injury factor or Vitamin H.
  • Synthesized by intestinal flora.
  • Reactive form is CarboxyBiocytin.
  • Biotin serves prosthetic group for carboxylation reaction.
  • Biotin acts as a coenzyme-
  1. Acetyl CoA Carboxylase
  2. Propionyl CoA carboxylase
  3. Pyruvate carboxylase
  • Biotin antagonist- Avidin (raw white egg), Streptavidin

Biotin Deficiency-

  • Depression, Hallucination
  • Anorexia
  • Seborrheic and erythematous rash near nose, eyes, mouth.
  • Alopecia 

Exam Important

  • Also called as anti-egg white injury factor or Vitamin H.
  • Synthesized by intestinal flora.
  • Reactive form is CarboxyBiocytin.
  • Biotin serves prosthetic group for carboxylation reaction.
  • Biotin antagonist- Avidin(raw white egg), Streptavidin
  • Biotin acts as a coenzyme
  1. Acetyl CoA Carboxylase
  2. Propionyl CoA carboxylase
  3. Pyruvate carboxylase

 Biotin Deficiency-

  • Depression, Hallucination
  • Anorexia
  • Seborrheic and erythematous rash near nose, eyes, mouth.
  • Alopecia
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

Module Below Start Quiz

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

Q. 1

The activity of the following enzyme is affected by biotin deficiency:

 A

Transketolase

 B

Dehydrogenase

 C

Oxidase

 D

Carboxylase

Q. 1

The activity of the following enzyme is affected by biotin deficiency:

 A

Transketolase

 B

Dehydrogenase

 C

Oxidase

 D

Carboxylase

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. Carboxylase 

Biotin is a coenzyme of carboxylase enzymesQ, that catalyze CO2 transfer reactions (CO2 fixation reaction).


Q. 2

Biotin is a Co-enzyme for ‑

 A

Transketolase

 B

Dehydrogenase

 C

Oxidase

 D

Carboxylase

Q. 2

Biotin is a Co-enzyme for ‑

 A

Transketolase

 B

Dehydrogenase

 C

Oxidase

 D

Carboxylase

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d i.e., Carboxylase

Quiz In Between



Late Postmortem changes – Mummification

Late Postmortem changes – Mummification


Introduction

  • It is a modification of putrefaction, which occurs in the absence of moisture. 
  • That is when there is excess air and warmth but no moisture (humidity), i.e. hot dry and windy climate, mummification takes place in place of normal putrefaction.
  • Thus mummification occurs in deserts, especially in summer and also in bodies buried in shallow grave in sandy soil.

Characteristics

  • Mummification is characterized by desiccation or drying of the dead body.
  • There is drying, dehydration and shrivelling of dead body.

Sites involved

  • It proceeds from exterior to interior.
  • Therefore first to be involved is skin, especially of exposed body parts like lips, nose tip, hands (fingers) and feet (toes).
  •  The skin is shrunken, contracted, dry, brittle, leathery, stretched across bony prominences and rusty brown to black in color.

Internally

  • Internal viscera also dry up, darken in color and blend with each other to form a single mass.
  •  Body emits smell like rotten cheese.
  • Facial features and injuries are well preserved, thus identification of body and cause of death can be determined (like adipocere formation).

Time

  • The time required for mummification varies between 3 months – 2 years. If properly preserved, a mummified body can remain for years.
  •  Chronic arsenic or antimony poisoning favor mummification.

Medicolegal importance : 

  • Identification of body (facial features are preserved)
  • Cause of death (injury marks are preserved)
  • Time since death can be estimated.

Exam Important

  • Mummification is characterized by desiccation or drying of the dead body.
  • Occurs when there is excess air and warmth but no moisture (humidity), i.e. hot dry and windy climate, mummification takes place in place of normal putrefaction.
  • Thus mummification occurs in deserts, especially in summer and also in bodies buried in shallow grave in sandy soil.
  • Body features and appearances are preserved but face is greatly distorted
  • Time since death can be estimated.
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Late Postmortem changes – Mummification

Module Below Start Quiz

Late Postmortem changes – Mummification

Late Postmortem changes – Mummification

Q. 1

Mummification is :

 A

Dessication of the body

 B

pugilistic attitude of the fishes

 C

Electric burns

 D

Burking

Q. 1

Mummification is :

 A

Dessication of the body

 B

pugilistic attitude of the fishes

 C

Electric burns

 D

Burking

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Dessication of body


Q. 2

Mummification occurs when :

 A

High atmospheric temperature is present

 B

Dry air condition

 C

Wind is present

 D

All are correct

Q. 2

Mummification occurs when :

 A

High atmospheric temperature is present

 B

Dry air condition

 C

Wind is present

 D

All are correct

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. All are correct


Q. 3

True about mummification is:

 A

External features are preserved

 B

High atmospheric temperature is needed for

 C

Occurs in dry air

 D

All of the above

Q. 3

True about mummification is:

 A

External features are preserved

 B

High atmospheric temperature is needed for

 C

Occurs in dry air

 D

All of the above

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. All of above

Mummification is dessication/ dehydration or drying & shriveling of body tissue & viscera after death.Q Mummification is drying or dehydrationQ of cadaver & is modification of putrefactionQ. In which body features and appearances are preservedQ but face is greatly distortedQ

High temperature, dry (devoid of moisture) environment with free circulation of airQ are ideal conditions for mummification.

Quiz In Between


Q. 4

Mummification is seen in :

 A

I.U.D. (Intrauterine death) fresh

 B

I.U.D. late

 C

Both

 D

None

Q. 4

Mummification is seen in :

 A

I.U.D. (Intrauterine death) fresh

 B

I.U.D. late

 C

Both

 D

None

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. IUD late


Q. 5

Mummification is enhanced by

 A

Moist and hot air

 B

Moist and cool air

 C

Dry and hot air

 D

Dry and cool air

Q. 5

Mummification is enhanced by

 A

Moist and hot air

 B

Moist and cool air

 C

Dry and hot air

 D

Dry and cool air

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Dry and hot air

Mummification

It is a modification of putrefaction, which occurs in the absence of moisture. That is when there is excess air and warmth but no moisture (humidity), i.e. hot dry and windy climate, mummification takes place in place of normal putrefaction. Thus mummification occurs in deserts, especially in summer and also in bodies buried in shallow grave in sandy soil.

Mummification is characterized by dessication or drying of the dead body. There is drying, dehydration and shriveling of dead body. It proceeds from exterior to interior. Therefore first to be involved is skin, especially of exposed body parts like lips, nose tip, hands (fingers) and feet (toes). The skin is shrunken, contracted, dry, brittle, leathery, streched across bony prominences and rusty brown to black in color. Internal viscera also dry up, darken in color and blend with each other to form a single mass. Body emits smell like rotten cheese. Facial features and injuries are well preserved, thus identification of body and cause of death can be determined (like adipocere formation).

Time required for mummification varies between 3 months – 2 years. If properly preserved, a mummified body can remain for years. Chronic arsenic or antimony poisoning favor mummification.

Medicolegal importance : (i) Identification of body (facial features are preserved), (ii) cause of death (injury marks are preserved), (iii) time since death can be estimated.

Quiz In Between



Late Postmortem changes – Adipocere

Late Postmortem changes – Adipocere


Introduction
  • Modification of the process of putrefaction in the dead body is (checked and is replaced) adipocere formation.
  • It is also called saponification

Process
  • Hydrolisation of fatty tissue into fatty acids.
  • Bacterial fat splitting enzymes and moisture are essential – Lecithinase.
  • Composed of saturated fatty acids by palmitic, stearic, hydroxystearic, olic acids
  • Yellowish white, greasy wax .
  • Body has an offensive sweet smell(Rancid smelling wax like substance)

Site

  • It forms at any site where fatty tissue is present.
  •  It is usually formed first in the subcutaneous tissues of cheeks, breasts, buttocks, and abdomen. 
  • The limbs, chest wall, or other parts of the body may also be affected. 
  • Sometimes in infants and obese individuals, the whole body is converted in adipocere formation.
Time required
  • In summer-3 wks, in tropics-5 to 15 days.

Most common in

  • Bodies immersed in water or in damp, warm environment with relative lack of air.
Factors Affecting
  • Water is essential for the bacterial and enzymatic process of adipocere formation.
  • A warm moist anaerobic conditions favour adipocere formation.
  • Adipocere formation is more frequent in females, well-nourished mature newborns, and obese persons. Fetuses under seven months do not show adipocere formation.
Medicolegal Importance
  • Identification
  • When adipocere develops in the face, the facial features are preserved, helping in the identification.
  • Cause of death can be determined as injuries can be recognized.
  • Time since death can be estimated.

Exam Important

  • Adipocere is most commonly seen in the body immersed in water or in damp, warm environment with lack of air.
  • It is also called saponification
  • Modification of putrefaction
  • Body has an offensive sweet smell
  • Hydrolisation of fatty tissue into fatty acids.
  • Bacterial fat splitting enzymes and moisture are essential – Lecithinase.
  • Cl. welchii bacteria helpful in adipocere formation
  • It is usually formed first in the subcutaneous tissues of cheeks, breasts, buttocks, and abdomen.
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Late Postmortem changes – Adipocere

Module Below Start Quiz

Late Postmortem changes – Adipocere

Late Postmortem changes – Adipocere

Q. 1 Which of the following is a feature of adipocere?
 A Rancid smelling wax like substance
 B Foul smelling oily liquid
 C Has no particular smell
 D None of the above
Q. 1 Which of the following is a feature of adipocere?
 A Rancid smelling wax like substance
 B Foul smelling oily liquid
 C Has no particular smell
 D None of the above
Ans. A

Explanation:

Adipocere = Saponification- hydrolysis and hydrogenation of fat (Olein and higher fatty acid) by lipases + lecithinase (Cl. Perfringens) hydrolysis, hydrogenation → with Ca+, NH3  → insoluble soap (whole fat to palmitic, oleic, stearic and hydroxy stearic acid). After death – fat contain – ½ % FA. In adipocere – FA ↑ 20% (1 month), 70% (3 months). Conditions for adipocere formation: Immersion in water, damp and warm climate + Enzyme lecithinase + fatty tissue. Sites: Buttocks, breast, face, and abdomen. Adipocere has offensive or sweetish smell earlier, later ammoniacal odour; Fresh adipocere– soft, moist, whitish, translucent and float on water, dissolved in alcohol and ether and gives yellow flame on burning, old adipocere hard and cracked appearance. Time required- 3 weeks to upto 3-6 months in summer. It may last for years or decades. Foetus < 7 mths – no adipocere.


Q. 2

Which among the following is NOT a feature of adipocere formation?

 A

Develops in moist clay soil

 B

Due to hydrolysis and hydrogenation of fat

 C

Cheesy odour

 D

First seen in subcutaneous fat deposit of cheek, buttocks etc

Q. 2

Which among the following is NOT a feature of adipocere formation?

 A

Develops in moist clay soil

 B

Due to hydrolysis and hydrogenation of fat

 C

Cheesy odour

 D

First seen in subcutaneous fat deposit of cheek, buttocks etc

Ans. C

Explanation:

Adipocere has a offensive rancid or an unpleasant sweetish smell.

It occurs as a result of hydrolysis and hydrogenation of preexisting fats into higher fatty acids which later combines with calcium and ammonium ions to form soluble soap which resists putrefaction.

Ref: Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology by Narayan Reddy, Edition 23, Page – 137, 138.


Q. 3

Adipocere formation is characterized by all except:

 A

Hydrolysis and hydrogenation of fat

 B

Foulsmell

 C

Cheesy odour

 D

Develops in dampy clay soil in whole body

Q. 3

Adipocere formation is characterized by all except:

 A

Hydrolysis and hydrogenation of fat

 B

Foulsmell

 C

Cheesy odour

 D

Develops in dampy clay soil in whole body

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. Cheesy odour

Adipocere has a distinct offensive (rancid) odour or penetrating ammonical odour or sweetish smellQ

Quiz In Between


Q. 4

True about adipocere :

 A

True about adipocere :

 B

Also called saponification

 C

Sweetish smell

 D

b and c

Q. 4

True about adipocere :

 A

True about adipocere :

 B

Also called saponification

 C

Sweetish smell

 D

b and c

Ans. D

Explanation:

B i.e. Also called Saponification; C i.e. Sweetish smell


Q. 5

Bacteria helpful in adipocere formation:

March 2004

 A

Staphyococcus

 B

E. coli

 C

B. proteus

 D

Cl. welchii

Q. 5

Bacteria helpful in adipocere formation:

March 2004

 A

Staphyococcus

 B

E. coli

 C

B. proteus

 D

Cl. welchii

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. D i.e. Cl. welchii


Q. 6

All are features of adipocere, except:

MAHE 11; PGI 13

 A

It consists of fatty acids

 B

Takes place in bodies buried in dry sandy soil

 C

Takes about 3 weeks to form

 D

Bacterial enzymes are necessary for its formation

Q. 6

All are features of adipocere, except:

MAHE 11; PGI 13

 A

It consists of fatty acids

 B

Takes place in bodies buried in dry sandy soil

 C

Takes about 3 weeks to form

 D

Bacterial enzymes are necessary for its formation

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. Takes place in bodies buried in dry sandy soil

Quiz In Between


Q. 7

Following is not true about adipocere formation ‑

 A

It is a modification of putrefaction

 B

It is developed in presence of air

 C

It occurs in dead bodies lying in water

 D

Body has an offensive sweet smell

Q. 7

Following is not true about adipocere formation ‑

 A

It is a modification of putrefaction

 B

It is developed in presence of air

 C

It occurs in dead bodies lying in water

 D

Body has an offensive sweet smell

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., It is developed in presence of air

Adipocere formation (saponification).

Adipocere is a modification of putrefaction, which occurs in the absence of air. That is when there is excessive moisture (humidity) and warnth (warm temperature), but absence of air i.e. warm humid climate, normal putrefaction does not occur, rather saponification occurs.

Thus adipocese formation occurs in dead bodies which are lying in water (immered in water) or burned in damp lay soil.

  • Saponification (adipocer formation) is the conversion of dead body into soft, fatty waxy substance due to conversion of unsaturated liquid fats to saturated solid fats under the influence of intrinsic lipase and lecithinase produced by Cl. perfringens. The process involves gradual hydrolysis and hydrogenation of body fats into higher fatty acids which combine with calcium and ammonium ions to form insoluble soaps. Ultimately, palmitic, oleic, stearic and hydroxystearic acids are formed, mixture of these is known as adipocere.
  • Adipocere formation starts in subcutaneous fat and is marked in areas having excessive fat, eg. cheeks, female breast, buttocks and abdomen. Slowly the whole body including muscles and internal viscera change into adipocere. Adipocere has offensive or sweetish smell, however in early stages, smell is ammonical.
  • Body is converted into soft, waxy and brittle substance, it floats on water, it can be cut easily, it dissolves in alcohol and ethers, and it melts on heating. Facial features and injuries on body are well preserved, thus identfication of body and determination cause of death (in case of injury) are possible.
  • Normally adipocere formation requires 3 weeks to upto 3 to 6 months. However shortest recorded period in india is 3 days 22 hours. In india, it has been observed to begin within 4-5 days. Adipocere may persist for years or decades. Adipocere does not occur in foetus less than 7 month’s.
  • Medicolegal importance : (i) Identification of body (facial features are preserved), (ii) cause of death (injury marks are preserved), (iii) time since death can be estimated.

Q. 8

Condition suitable for adipocere formation

 A

Cold and dry environment

 B

Warm and dry environment

 C

Warm and damp environment

 D

Cold and damp environment

Q. 8

Condition suitable for adipocere formation

 A

Cold and dry environment

 B

Warm and dry environment

 C

Warm and damp environment

 D

Cold and damp environment

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Warm and damp environment

Adipocere

  • It is also called saponification
  • It is a modification of putrefaction
  • In this, the fatty tissues of the body change into substance known as adipocere.

It is most commonly seen in the body immersed in water or in damp, warm environment.

  • Moisture present, warmth present, air present → Putrefaction.
  • Moisture present, warmth present, air absent, i.e. warm humid climate → Adipocere formation (saponification).
  • Moisture absent, warmth present, air present, i.e. hot dry climate → Mummification.

Quiz In Between



Late Postmortem changes – Putrefaction

Late Postmortem changes – Putrefaction


Concept

Late Changes
  1. Decomposition / Putrefaction.
  2. Adipocere formation / Saponification.
  3. Mummification.

Decomposition / Putrefaction.

  • The last stage in the resolution of the body, from the organic to the inorganic state, is a certain sign of death.

AUTOLYSIS

  • Rise of enzyme levels in the tissue cells after death.
  • Softening & liquefying of the body tissue.
  • Starts 3-4 hrs after death and continues for 2-3 days.

BACTERIAL ACTION

  • Action of bacterial enzymes on tissue components(lecithinase — Cl. welchii) –
  • Carbohydrates/fat/proteins.
  • Bacterial growth – warmth,moisture are conditions favourable.
  • Clostridium welchii, streptococci, E coli, B proteus.

CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES 

COLOUR CHANGES

  • First external sign of putrefaction in a dead body
  • Greenish discolouration of skin over caecum and flanks after death appears 18-24 hrs.
  • Greenish to black discolouration- ‘Sulphmethahaemoglobin’ formed by H2S due to microorganisms in the large intestine.
  • Appears early in summer & delayed in winter.
  • Discoloration spreads- front of abdomen, external genitals, chest, neck, face, arms and legs – spreads whole body in 24-36 hrs.
  • Discolouration of vessel walls due to pigmentation from decomposed blood over the shoulder and groin. Arborescent pattern- ‘Marbling’

GASES OF PUTRIFACTION

  • Development of gases under the skin and hollow viscera 18-36 hrs. 24-48 hrs in solid viscera.
  • H2S, ammonia, phosphated hydrogen, CO2 and methane.
  • Causes pseudo rigidity, exerts pressure.
  • More gases accumulation, body floats in water.

PRESSURE EFFECTS OF PUTREFACTIVE GASES

  • Displaces the diaphragm upwards
  • Discoloured fluid and liquefied tissue mixes with gases producing froth.
  • Bloating of the features.
  • Shifting of the area of hypostasis.
  • Changes in skin, hair and wound.
  • Extrusion of fluid from the mouth and nose.(Post-mortem purge)
  • Emptying of the heart.
  • Changes in appearance of genitals.

APPEARANCE OF MAGGOTS

  • Maggots are seen on the dead body after 2-3 days
  • 2-4 days in rainy season
  • Flies lay eggs over the decomposed body- nose, mouth, vagina and anus in 18-36 hrs
  • After 24-36 hrs eggs hatch into larvae or maggots, enter the body and destroy the tissues.
  • After 4-5 days develop into pupae.
  • After 7-8 days into adult fly.

OTHER SEQUELAE

  • Fall of teeth
  • Separation of skull sutures
  • Liquefied brain matter oozes out.
  • ‘Colliquative putrefaction this process takes place between 7-14 days. 

INTERNALLY 

Order of appearance of putrefaction from earliest to last is 

  • Larynx, trachea > stomach, intestine > spleen, liver> brain, lungs > heart > kidney, bladder > uterus/prostate > bone
  • Amongst the soft tissues uterus in female and prostate in males are last to undergo putrefaction, as uterus and prostate resist putrefaction. Otherwise bones are last to undergo putrefaction, overall

STOMACH

  • Dark red patches over the walls
  • Perforation due to autolysis
LIVER
  • Softens and flabby
  • Becomes spongy ‘Foamy liver’
  • Honeycombing
Early putrefaction 24-48hrs
  • Larynx, trachea, brain of infants, stomach, intestines, spleen, omentum and mesentery, liver and adult brain.
Late putrefaction 2-3 weeks
  • Heart, lungs, kidneys, bladder, oesophagus, pancreas, diaphragm, blood vessels, prostate, testis and non gravid uterus, ovaries.

Factors causing delay of putrefaction 

  • Temperature 48° C (very high temperature).
  • Dry weather and/or decreased air velocity.
  • More than 2 meter deep grave.
  • Tight clothing.
  • Body in dry soil, and body packed in coffin.
  • Infant not fed.
  • Wasting diseases like anemia.
  • Poisoning: Carbolic acid, ZnC12, strychnine (nux vomica), and heavy metals (arsenic, antimony).
  • In water slower than in air (casper’s dictum)
  • Caspers dictum.
  • Rate of decomposition in soil water and air- 1:2:8.
  •  “According to an old rule of thumb (Casper’s dictum) one week of. putrefaction in air is equivalent to two weeks in water, which is equivalent to eight. weeks buried in soil, given the same environmental temperature”

Factors facilitating putrefaction 

  • Free access of air
  • Moisture 
  • Optimum warmth (10°C – 45° C).
  •  Thus decomposition is fast in shallow damp, marshy shallow graves, in bodies without clothes and coffin.

Exam Important

 Late Changes
  1. Decomposition /
  2. Putrefaction.

BACTERIAL ACTION

  • Action of bacterial enzymes on tissue components(lecithinase —Cl. welchii) 

CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES 

COLOUR CHANGES

  • First external sign of putrefaction in a dead body
  • Greenish discolouration of skin over caecum and flanks after death appears 18-24 hrs.
  • Greenish to black discolouration- ‘Sulphmethahaemoglobin’ formed by H2S due to microorganisms in the large intestine.

PRESSURE EFFECTS OF PUTREFACTIVE GASES

  • Displaces the diaphragm upwards
  • Discoloured fluid and liquefied tissue mixes with gases producing froth.
  • Shifting of the area of hypostasis.
  • Extrusion of fluid from the mouth and nose.(Post-mortem purge)

APPEARANCE OF MAGGOTS

  • Maggots are seen
    on the dead body after 2-3 days
  • 2-4 days in rainy season

INTERNALLY 

Order of appearance of putrefaction from earliest to last is 

  • Larynx, trachea > stomach, intestine > spleen, liver> brain, lungs >heart > kidney, bladder > uterus/prostate > bone Amongst the softtissues uterus in female and prostate in males are last to undergo putrefaction, as uterus and prostate resist putrefaction. Otherwise bones are last to undergo putrefaction, overall

LIVER

  • Softens and
    flabby
  • Becomes spongy
    ‘Foamy liver’
  • Honeycombing 

Factors
causing delay of putrefaction 

  • Temperature 48°C (very high temperature).
  • Dry weather and/or decreased air velocity.
  • More than 2 meter deep grave.
  • Tight clothing.
  • Body in dry soil, and body packed in coffin.
  • Infant not fed.
  • Wasting diseases like anemia.

Poisoning:
Carbolic acid, ZnC12, strychnine (nux vomica), and heavy metals (arsenic, antimony).

  • In water slower than in air (casper’s dictum)
  • .Caspers dictum.
  •  Rate of decomposition in soil water and air- 1:2:8.
  •  “According to an old rule of thumb (Casper’sdictum) one week of. putrefaction in air is equivalent to two weeks in water, which is equivalent to eight. weeks buried in soil, given the same environmental temperature”

Factors facilitating putrefaction 

  • Free
    access of air
  • Moisture 
  • Optimum warmth
    (10°C – 45° C).
  •  Thus decomposition is fast in shallow damp, marshy shallow graves, in bodies without clothes and coffin.
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Late Postmortem changes – Putrefaction

Module Below Start Quiz

Late Postmortem changes – Putrefaction

Late Postmortem changes – Putrefaction

Q. 1

Post-mortem purge is associated with the following:

 A

Hypostasis

 B

Rigor mortis

 C

Post mortem lividity

 D

Putrefaction

Q. 1

Post-mortem purge is associated with the following:

 A

Hypostasis

 B

Rigor mortis

 C

Post mortem lividity

 D

Putrefaction

Ans. D

Explanation:

During putrefaction, discoloured natural fluids and liquified tissues are made frothy by gas.
Due to the presence of gas in the abdomen, the diaphragm is forced upwards compressing the lungs and heart, and blood stained froth exudes from the mouth and nostrils which is known as post-partum purge. 
 
Ref: The Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology by K S Narayan Reddy, 27th edition, Page 146.

Q. 2

Honeycombing is seen in liver in case of :

 A

Cirrhosis

 B

Rupture

 C

Putrefaction

 D

Hydatid disease

Q. 2

Honeycombing is seen in liver in case of :

 A

Cirrhosis

 B

Rupture

 C

Putrefaction

 D

Hydatid disease

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. Putrefaction


Q. 3

Putrefaction is a :

 A

Perimortem sign of death

 B

Immediate sign of death

 C

Early sign of death

 D

Late sign of death

Q. 3

Putrefaction is a :

 A

Perimortem sign of death

 B

Immediate sign of death

 C

Early sign of death

 D

Late sign of death

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. Late sign of death

Quiz In Between


Q. 4

Putrefaction is facilitated by following except:

 A

Very high temp

 B

Free air

 C

Damp environment

 D

Shallow grave

Q. 4

Putrefaction is facilitated by following except:

 A

Very high temp

 B

Free air

 C

Damp environment

 D

Shallow grave

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Very high temperature

–  In females ovaries & non gravid uterusQ; and in males prostate & testisQ putrify very late only preceeded by skin, muscle, tendon & bone which are last organ to putrify. (in the same order)

– Due to involution of gases, the liver becomes spongy in W. putrefaction and it is k/a Foamy or Swiss cheese or Honey combed liverQ

–  Greenish discolouration of flank over cecum i.e. right iliac fossaQ, which appears in about 12-24 hoursQ (6 hours in summer & > 24 hours in winter) is first external sign of putrefaction (decomposition).

–    In females ovaries & non gravid uterusQ; and in males prostate & testisQ putrify very late only preceeded by skin, niuscle, tendon & bone which are last organ to putrify. (in the same order)

Casper’s dictum relates to the rate of putrefaction of a dead body and helps in estimation of time since death.

Putrefaction is arrested below 0°C & above 48°CQ as the activity of microorganism stops.

Putrefaction is facilitated by free access of air, moisture & optimum temperature (10°C-450C), so decomposition is fast in shallow damp, marshy gravesQ in bodies without clothes & coffin.


Q. 5

Maggots in rainy day are seen within

 A

6 hours

 B

1-2 days

 C

2-4 days

 D

5-6 days

Q. 5

Maggots in rainy day are seen within

 A

6 hours

 B

1-2 days

 C

2-4 days

 D

5-6 days

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. 2 – 4 days


Q. 6

Maggots are seen on the dead body after :

 A

One day

 B

2-3 days

 C

3-4 days

 D

One week

Q. 6

Maggots are seen on the dead body after :

 A

One day

 B

2-3 days

 C

3-4 days

 D

One week

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. 2-3 days

Quiz In Between


Q. 7

Foamy liver is seen in:

TN 08; UP 08; NIMS 11; NEET 13

 A

Arsenic poisoning

 B

Electrocution

 C

Hanging

 D

Putrefaction

Q. 7

Foamy liver is seen in:

TN 08; UP 08; NIMS 11; NEET 13

 A

Arsenic poisoning

 B

Electrocution

 C

Hanging

 D

Putrefaction

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. Putrefaction


Q. 8

Last organ to putrefy in females is:           

BHU 12

 A

Kidney

 B

Uterus

 C

Brain

 D

Spleen

Q. 8

Last organ to putrefy in females is:           

BHU 12

 A

Kidney

 B

Uterus

 C

Brain

 D

Spleen

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. Uterus


Q. 9

Sequence of putrefaction:

WB 07

 A

Heart-brain-uterus-spleen

 B

Spleen-brain-heart-uterus

 C

Heart-spleen-brain-uterus

 D

Heart-brain-spleen-uterus

Q. 9

Sequence of putrefaction:

WB 07

 A

Heart-brain-uterus-spleen

 B

Spleen-brain-heart-uterus

 C

Heart-spleen-brain-uterus

 D

Heart-brain-spleen-uterus

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. Spleen-brain-heart-uterus

Quiz In Between


Q. 10

Following poisoning retards putrefaction:

NEET 13

 A

Aluminium phosphide

 B

Lead

 C

Arsenic

 D

Copper

Q. 10

Following poisoning retards putrefaction:

NEET 13

 A

Aluminium phosphide

 B

Lead

 C

Arsenic

 D

Copper

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. Arsenic


Q. 11

Casper’s dictum is related to:       

AI 09; MP 11

 A

Identification of dead body

 B

Calculation of time since death

 C

Floatation of a dead body

 D

Rate of putrefaction

Q. 11

Casper’s dictum is related to:       

AI 09; MP 11

 A

Identification of dead body

 B

Calculation of time since death

 C

Floatation of a dead body

 D

Rate of putrefaction

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. Rate of putrefaction


Q. 12

Putrefaction of body in air compared to earth is:

AP 07

 A

Same

 B

Two times

 C

Four times

 D

Eight times

Q. 12

Putrefaction of body in air compared to earth is:

AP 07

 A

Same

 B

Two times

 C

Four times

 D

Eight times

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. Eight times

Quiz In Between


Q. 13

In which organ putrefaction is late ‑

 A

Pancreas

 B

Brain

 C

Prostate

 D

Intestines

Q. 13

In which organ putrefaction is late ‑

 A

Pancreas

 B

Brain

 C

Prostate

 D

Intestines

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Prostate

Order of putrefaction

Order of appearance of putrefaction from earliest to last is :larynx, trachea > stomach, intestine > spleen, liver> brain, lungs > heart > kidney, bladder > uterus/prostate > bone.

Amongst the soft tissues uterus in femaleand prostate in males are last to undergo putrefaction, as uterus and prostate resist putrefaction. Otherwise bones are last to undergo putrefaction, overall


Q. 14

Last to undergo of putrefaction –

 A

Lung

 B

Spleen

 C

Prostate

 D

Heart

Q. 14

Last to undergo of putrefaction –

 A

Lung

 B

Spleen

 C

Prostate

 D

Heart

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Prostate


Q. 15

Greenish discolouration at putrefaction is due to‑

 A

MetHb

 B

Sulph-meth Hb

 C

Deoxy Hb

 D

Carboxy Hb

Q. 15

Greenish discolouration at putrefaction is due to‑

 A

MetHb

 B

Sulph-meth Hb

 C

Deoxy Hb

 D

Carboxy Hb

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Sulph-meth Hb

Quiz In Between


Q. 16

First external sign of putrefaction in a dead body as shown in the photograph below is ? 

 A

Purple  coloration spread over the entire abdomen

 B

Greenish discoloration over Right iliac fossa.

 C

Greenish discolouration of dependent parts.

 D

Blood stained froth from mouth.

Q. 16

First external sign of putrefaction in a dead body as shown in the photograph below is ? 

 A

Purple  coloration spread over the entire abdomen

 B

Greenish discoloration over Right iliac fossa.

 C

Greenish discolouration of dependent parts.

 D

Blood stained froth from mouth.

Ans. B

Explanation:

 Ans:B.)Greenish discoloration over Right iliac fossa.

Greenish dislocation of skin over right iliac fossa is the first sign seen in a decomposed body.

Stages of Decomposition
A.)Fresh (1-2 days)
Autolysis

  • This is the part of decomposition that happens almost instanly after death, when the human body starts loosing heat. The body goes through a process called Autolysis/Self-digestion, due to the actions of its own enzymes.

B.)Bloated (2-6 days)
Putrefaction

  • Destruction of the soft tissues of the body is caused mainly by the action of bacterial enzymes, mostly anaerobic organisms derived from the intestines. 
  • The characteristic features of putrefaction are:

(i) changes in the color of the tissues

  • The first external sign of putrefaction in a body lying in air is usually a greenish discoloration of the skin over the region of the cecum, which lies fairly superficially, and where the contents of the bowel are more fluid and full of bacteria.
  • Internally, this is seen on the under surface of the liver, where that organ is in contact with the transverse colon.
  • The color results from the conversion of hemoglobin of blood into sulphmet hemoglobin by the hydrogen sulphide formed in the large intestine and escaping into the surrounding tissues.
  • The green coloration then spreads over the entire abdomen, external genitals and then patches appear successively on the chest, neck, face, arms and legs.
  • The patches become dark-green and later purple and dark-blue.
  • They are at first scattered, but later on join together and the whole skin of the body appears discolored.
  • As a general rule, the organs show putrefactive changes in the following order.
  • (1) Larynx and trachea.
  • (2) Stomach, intestines and spleen.
  • (3) Liver, lungs.
  • (4) Brain.
  • (5) Heart.
  • (6) Kidneys, bladder.
  • (7) Prostate, uterus.
  • (8) Skin, muscle, tendon.
  • (9) Bones.
  • (ii) the evolution of gases in the tissues:
  • Gas bubbles accumulate in the tissues, causing crepitant, sponge-like feeling which soon begins to distend the body.
  • Discolored natural fluids and liquefied tissues are made frothy by gas.
  • Due to the presence of gas in the abdomen, the diaphragm is forced upwards compressing the lungs and heart, and bloodstained froth exudes from the mouth and nostrils (postmortem purge), which can be mistaken for the bleeding following antemortem injury.

(iii) the liquefaction of tissues.

  • Colliquative putrefaction begins from 5 to 10 days or more after death. The abdomen bursts and the stomach and intestines protrude.

C.)Decay (5-11 days)

  • Active decay- this part of decay is reconizeable by a great loss in mass(weight), this weight loss is caused by the ravinous feeding by maggots, and the leaking of the body’s decomposition fluids into the the environment around it

D.)Post-Decay (10-24 days)

  • Advanced Decay- this decay is marked by change in the soil surrounding the body that is, by now, leaking fluids. insect activity will start to lessen, and the surrounding plant life will start to die.

E.)Dry Stage (24+ days)

  • The final stage of decomposition results in the remains consisting primarily of bones, some dried skin and cartilage. There is typically no odour of decay at this point.
  • Skeletonisation- this the final act of human decomposition in a temperate climate it can take two years, in a hot climate it can happen as fast as two weeks, and in a cold temperature it can take longer. all moisture in the body is lost, and the bones are exposed and easily visible.

Q. 17

Major bacterial enzyme responsible for putrefaction‑

 A

Hyaluronidase

 B

Lecithinase

 C

Metalloproteinase

 D

Collagenase

Q. 17

Major bacterial enzyme responsible for putrefaction‑

 A

Hyaluronidase

 B

Lecithinase

 C

Metalloproteinase

 D

Collagenase

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Lecithinase

Putrefaction

  • Produced mainly by the action of bacterial enzymes (lecithinase — Cl. welchii)
  • Anaerobic organism (from bowels)
  • Causing marked hemolysis and liquefaction in blood vessels and tissue spaces, thus producing following effects
  1. Color changes : greenish discoloration in right iliac fossa abdomen —> genitalia -4 chest —> neck —> face – arms -4 legs. Superficial veins over the root of the limbs, thighs, sides of abdomen, shoulder, chest and neck are stained greenish-brown or purplish-red, marbled appearance in 36 to 48 hours (marbling).
  2. Foul-smelling and breakdown of proteins and carbohydrates. Gases produced : CO2 + NH3 + CH4 mercaptans + mercaptans (noninflammable) + H2S (inflammable). Gas bubbles cause crepitation and give spongelike feeling. Blood-stained froth from mouth and nostrils is called postmortem purge.

Distension of body                                       36 to 48 hours

Anus and uterus prolapse                           : 2 to 3 days

PM blisters, face distroted                          : more than 3 days

Nail, skull sutures, and hair loss                 : more than 5 days

  • Skin shows slippage, comes off in glove and stocking fashion.
  • Postmortem luminescence due to : Photobacterium fischeri bacteria and Armillaria mellea fungi.

      3.Liquefaction of tissues (colliquative putrefaction) : 5 to 10 days.

  • Putrefactive effusion : pleural cavity 60 to 100 ml.
  • Skeletonization of an uncoffined buried body occurs in about 1 year.
  • Order of appearance of putrefaction (earliest to last) : larynx, trachea —> Stomach, intestine —> Liver, spleen —> Brain, lungs —> Heart, kidney -4 Bladder, uterus/prostrate —> Skin,   muscles, tendon -4 lastly, bones.
  • Uterus and prostate resist putrefaction (last to putrefy).
  • Entomology of the cadaver
  • Eggs of houseflies are deposited in 6 to 12 hours in nostrils, mouth, etc.
  • In 8 to 12 hours, maggots/larvae are produced from the eggs.
  • Maggots become pupae in 4 to 5 days.
  • Total time from egg laying to development into adult flies = 8 to 10 days.

Q. 18

Putrefaction is delayed in all except ‑

 A

Warm moist atmosphere

 B

Carbolic acid poisoning

 C

Anemia

 D

Heavy metals poisoning

Q. 18

Putrefaction is delayed in all except ‑

 A

Warm moist atmosphere

 B

Carbolic acid poisoning

 C

Anemia

 D

Heavy metals poisoning

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Warm moist atmosphere

Factors causing delay of putrefaction

  • Temperature <0°C or > 48° C (very high temperature).
  • Dry weather and/or decreased air velocity.
  • More than 2 meter deep grave.
  • Tight clothing.
  • Body in dry soil, and body packed in coffin.
  • Infant not fed.
  • Wasting diseases like anemia.
  • Poisoning : Carbolic acid, ZnC12, strychnine (nux vomica), and heavy metals (arsenic, antimony).
  • In water slower than in air (casper’s dictum).

Factors facilitating putrefaction

  • Putrefaction is facilitated by (i) free access of air (ii) moisture and (iii) optimum warnth (10°C – 45° C). Thus decomposition is fast in shallow damp, marshy shallow graves, in bodies without clothes and coffin.

Quiz In Between



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