C. Visceral leishmaniasis.
D. Cases of post kalaazar dermal leishmaniasis.
Ans:C. Visceral leishmaniasis.
The parasite shown in the image is Promastigote phase of Leishmania in the culture.
- It is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and spread by the bite of certain types of sandflies.
- The disease can present in three main ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral
- Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar is fatal if left untreated in over 5% of cases. It is characterized by irregular bouts of fever, weight loss, enlargement of the spleen and liver, and anaemia. It is highly endemic in the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The kala-azar elimination programmes in South-East Asia are making sustained progress towards elimination, and cases are declining in the three major endemic countries: Bangladesh, India and Nepal.
- In India Leishmania donovani is the only parasite causing this disease.
- Endemic in eastern States of India namely Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
- Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common form of leishmaniasis and causes skin lesions, mainly ulcers, on exposed parts of the body, leaving life-long scars and serious disability. About 95% of CL cases occur in the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East and Central Asia.
- Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis leads to partial or total destruction of mucous membranes of the nose, mouth and throat. Almost 90% of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis cases occur in Bolivia (the Plurinational State of), Brazil and Peru.
- Culture:Growth of Promastigotes in days to weeks.Promastigotes are characterized by a flagellum and a kinetoplast anterior to the nucleus. They are the infective stage to humans.