C. Strangulation by ligature.
Ans:C. Strangulation by ligature.
Horizontal ligature mark in the neck is seen in strangulation.
Ligature mark over the neck
- There are three types of compression of neck which are of prime forensic importance –
I) (1) Manual strangulation (2) Hanging (3) Ligature strangulation.
II) Ligature mark is found in the latter two types.
- Ligature mark is a pressure mark on the neck underneath the ligature.
- The distinction between the two types is very important because strangulation is presumed tobe homicidal and hanging is considered to be suicidal unless proved otherwise.
- While determining the cause of death resulting from compression of neck, three important parameters i.e. level,discontinuity and obliquity of ligature mark are always considered to differentiate hanging from strangulation.
- Ligature mark is situated above thyroid cartilage in most of the cases of hanging.
- In majority of cases of ligature strangulation, ligature mark is present below thyroid cartilage.
- Ligature mark is incompletely encircling the neck and obliquely present around the neck in all cases of hanging.
- In all deaths due to ligature strangulation,the ligature mark was completely encircling and transversely present around the neck.
- Underlying soft tissues of neck are glistening white in all hanging deaths while it shows extravasations of blood in all ligature strangulation cases.
- Maximum (well marked) external signs of asphyxia such as congestion, cynosis & petechiae on face along with extensive bruising of neck muscle and ecchymosis of sub cutaneous tissue is characteristic of strangulation.