B. Fatty liver
C. Flag sign of hair
D. Monkey facies
Ans:D. Monkey facies
Kwashiorkar is seen in the image.
It refers to a form of malnutrition where there is inadequate calorie or protein intake.
- Kwashiorkor (protein malnutrition predominant)
- Marasmus (deficiency in calorie intake)
- Marasmic Kwashiorkor (marked protein deficiency and marked calorie insufficiency signs present, sometimes referred to as the most severe form of malnutrition).
- It is a form of severe protein–energy malnutrition characterized by edema, irritability, ulcerating dermatoses, and an enlarged liver with fatty infiltrates.
- Sufficient calorie intake, but with insufficient protein consumption, distinguishes it from marasmus.
Marasmus and Kwashiorkor
|Incidence||More common||Less common|
|Stage in PEM||Compensated phase||Uncompensated phase|
|Muscle wasting||Obvious||Sometimes hidden by edema and fat|
|Fat wasting||Severe loss of subcutaneous fat||Fat often retained but not firm|
|Weight for height||Very low||Low but may be masked by edema|
|Appetite||Vocarious (good) appetite||Poor|
|Skin changes||xerotic, wrinkled, and loose.||Diffuse pigmentations, flaky paint dermatosis|
|Hair changes||None||Sparse, silky, easily pulled out|
|Liver biopsy||Normal or atrophic||Fatty changes|
|Infection||Less prone||More prone|
|Serum Albumin||Normal or slightly decreased||Low (<3g/100 ml)|
|Others||Baggy pant appearance,Monkey facies||Sugar baby appearance,Flag sign of hair|
|Mortality||Less than Kwashiorkar||High in early stage|