A. Hypovolemic shock
B. Neurogenic shock
C. Spinal shock
Spinal shock (Bulbocavernous reflex)
The test involves monitoring internal/external anal sphincter contraction in response to squeezing the glans penis or clitoris, or tugging on an indwelling Foley catheter.
This reflex can also be tested electrophysiologically, by stimulating the penis or vulva and recording from the anal sphincter.
This test modality is used in intraoperative neurophysiology monitoring to verify function of sensory and motor sacral roots as well as the conus medullaris.