C. Diabetic retinopathy
D. Hypertensive retinopathy
‘Blood and thunder’ retinal appearance is shown in the image.
Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO)
- old age
- diabetes mellitus
- hypercoagulable state
- atherosclerosis (vein is compressed by adjacent artery)
- retrobular compressive lesions (e.g. thyroid disease, orbital tumour)
- Visual acuity — variable depending on severity and duration since onset
- A Marcus-Gunn pupil may be present if ischemic CRVO (relative afferent pupillary defect = RAPD)
- Red reflex — may be abnormal
- Fundoscopy — large areas of hemorrhage:
- non-ischemic CRVO — dilated tortuous veins, retinal hemorrhages, cotton wool spots, retinal edema, disc swelling.
- ischemic CRVO (more severe) — classic ‘blood and thunder’ appearance from widespread hemorrhages that obscure most fundal details. Neovascularisation.