Bullet and Gunpowder

Bullet and Gunpowder


Bullet (of Rifle/revolver/pistol)

  • Traditionally made of lead with antimony added for hardness, k/a round nose soft bullet.

Jacketed bullets are of 2 types:

  1. Full metal jacket bullet
  2. Semi jacketed bullet with nose fully or partly exposed 

Air rifles and air pistols 

  • Compressed air supplies the propulsion power instead of ignition powder
  • Small velocity,80 to 100 metre per second
  • Striking range about 40 metres
  • Causes only minor injuries

 Velocity: 

  • Destructive power of bullet is determined by velocity of bullet.
  • A bullet’s ability to injure is directly related to its kinetic energy at the moment of impact. 
  • Kinetic energy i.e. E = mv2 /2
  • The kinetic energy is directly proportional to weight (mass) of the bullet and the square of its velocity.
  • Thus a bullet traveling at twice the speed of a second bullet of equal weight and similar size and shape, possesses four times much energy and injuring power.

Types of projectiles/bullet

  • Lead shot: Present in shot gun cartridge, are of different sizes
  • Jacketed conical bullets: fully or partially encased with copper or copper nickel, used in rifles.
  • Hardened lead bullets: in pistol and revolver

Tracer bullet: 

  • Leaves a visible mark in its flight
  • Barium peroxide and magnesium are enclosed in base, give light as they pass.
  • Incendiary bullet: contains phosphorus, burn the tissue.

Tandem bullet: 

  • A pair of bullets are said to travel in tandem if the nose of one is in contact with the base of the other.
  • This phenomenon is observed when the first bullet, having been stuck in the barrel, fails to leave the barrel, and is ejected by the subsequently fired bullet. 
  • If the tandem bullets hit the target before separation, a single hole of entry is seen. 
  • But if the bullets separate before they hit the target two entry holes on the same or on different targets may be observed.

Frangible bullets

  • These bullets are designed to fragment upon impact. often to the point of disintegration. 
  • Recovery and matching with a test bullet is difficult.

Souvenir bullets

  • A bullet present for a long time in the body leading to dense fibrous tissue formation around it.
  • Dum-dum bullet:Expanding bullet
  • Is a jacketed bullet with its nose cut-off to expose the core.
  •  It is designed to increase in diameter and expand upon striking the target
  • Thus producing larger diameter wounds of limited penetration.

Ricochet bullet:

  • It is a single bullet which strikes some intervening object first and then after ricocheting and rebounding strikes the target.

Yawning bullet: 

  • A bullet travelling in an irregular fashion instead of straight line.

Gunpowder: 3 types

1.Black powder

  • It is described in FG, FFG, FFFG and so on depending on the size of the grains.
  • The finer and faster burning grains have more numbers of Fs.
  • It contains PCS°
  • Potassium nitrate (75%)°
  • Charcoal (15%)°
  • Sulphur (10°/0)°
  • Only 44% of black powder is burnt into gas
  • The powder grains are black, coarse or fine, burns with production of much heat, flame and smoke
  • Fine grains travel 60-90 cm or more.

2. Smokeless powder 

  • Smokeless gun powder is composed of nitrocellulose.
  • Double based smokeless gunpowder consists of Nitrocellulose plus nitroglycerine.
  • Nitrocellulose plus nitroglycerine plus nitroguanidine (triple base)
  • 100% smokeless powder is burnt
  • Produces much less smoke and are more completely burnt than black powder

Semi smokeless powder 

  • Mix of 85% black and 15% smokeless powder 

Following things come out of a gun when fired

  1. Projectile
  2. Blast of highly compressed gases
  3. Particle of unburnt /partly burnt powder
  4. Smoke
  5. Flame
  6. Wads (in shotguns)
  7. Fine lead fragments (in lead bullets )
  8. Grease from the weapon
  9. Empty cartridge

Exam Important

  • Destructive power of bullet is determined by velocity of bullet.
  • A pair of bullets are said to travel in tandem if the nose of one is in contact with the base of the other.
  • In tandem bullet, number of bullets coming out of the gun are 2
  • A bullet travelling in an irregular fashion instead of straight line is known as yawning bullet.
  • Dum-dum bullet
    • Also called expanding bullet
    • Produce larger diameter wounds of limited penetration.
  • Souvenir bullet: A bullet left in body for long time and is surrounded by fibrous tissue.

Tracer bullet: 

  • Leaves a visible mark in its flight

Frangible bullets

  • These bullets are designed to fragment upon impact.
  • Smokeless gun powder is composed of nitrocellulose.
  • Double based smokeless gun powder consists of Nitrocellulose plus nitroglycerine.
  • Black powder contains PCS°
  • Potassium nitrate (75%)°
  • Charcoal (15%)°
  • Sulphur (10°/0)°
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Bullet and Gunpowder

Module Below Start Quiz

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