Case Control Study

Case Control Study


Case Control Study

  • Direction of Case control study is reverse but time is forward .
  • Case control study is Retrospective.
  • Recall bias is most commonly associated with case control study design.

Bias associated with Case-control study:

  1. Selection
  2. Confounding
  3. Recall bias
  4. Berkesonian bias
  5. Interviewer’s bias.
  • Nested case control study is a type of prospective Study.
  • As compared to a routine case control study, nested case control study avoids problems (in study design) related to temporal association.
  • Case control study is used for study of rare diseases.
  • Using case control study only odds ratio can be calculated.
  • Incidence rates, relative risk and attributable risk can be calculated using cohort study.
  • Case control study is inexpensive, easy to carry out, used to investigate rare diseases, used to identify risk factors, allows study of different etiological factors and is associated with minimal ethical problems.
  • Case control study proceeds from the effect to cause.
  • Those with disease and not diseased compared in Case control study.
  • In a case control study, the most characteristic feature is Odd’s Ratio estimation.
  • Risk in case control study is calculated by odds ratio (cross product ratio).
  • In a case controlled study. It is found that the disease is more common in the group taking coffee as compared to the control group. The significance of this is Caffeine is associated with occurrence of disease.
  • Case-control study can only tell the association between cause and effect.

In a case control study on smoking and lung cancer, out of 35 lung cancer patients, 33 are smokers. Out of 82 controls, 27 are non smokers. The odds ratio is 8.1.

Important risk factors and their outcomes/diseases which have been studied by case-control study are :-

  • Cigarette smoking and lung cancer.
  • Maternal smoking and congenital malformation.
  • Radiation and leukemia.
  • OCP used and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Herpes-simplex and Bells palsy.
  • Artificial sweeteners and bladder cancer.
  • DES exposure in fetal life and vaginal adenocarcinoma.
  • OCP use and thromboembolic disease.
  • Thalidomide use in pregnancy and teratogenicity.
  • Matching is method to eliminate confounding bias. It is used in Case Control Study.
Exam Question
 
  • Direction of Case control study is reverse but time is forward .
  • Case control study is Retrospective.
  • Recall bias is most commonly associated with case control study design.
  • Bias associated with Case-control study:
  • Selection
  • Confounding
  • Recall bias
  • Berkesonian bias
  • Interviewer’s bias.
  • Nested case control study is a type of prospective Study.
  • As compared to a routine case control study, nested case control study avoids problems (in study design) related to temporal association.
  • Case control study is used for study of rare diseases.
  • Using case control study only odds ratio can be calculated.
  • Incidence rates, relative risk and attributable risk can be calculated using cohort study.
  • Case control study is inexpensive, easy to carry out, used to investigate rare diseases, used to identify risk factors, allows study of different etiological factors and is associated with minimal ethical problems.
  • Case control study proceeds from the effect to cause.
  • Those with disease and not diseased compared in Case control study.
  • In a case control study, the most characteristic feature is Odd’s Ratio estimation.
  • Risk in case control study is calculated by odds ratio (cross product ratio).
  • In a case controlled study. It is found that the disease is more common in the group taking coffee as compared to the control group. The significance of this is Caffeine is associated with occurrence of disease.
    Case-control study can only tell the association between cause and effect.
  • In a case control study on smoking and lung cancer, out of 35 lung cancer patients, 33 are smokers. Out of 82 controls, 27 are non smokers. The odds ratio is 8.1.
  • Important risk factors and their outcomes/diseases which have been studied by case-control study are :-
  • Cigarette smoking and lung cancer.
  • Maternal smoking and congenital malformation.
  • Radiation and leukemia.
  • OCP used and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Herpes-simplex and Bells palsy.
  • Artificial sweeteners and bladder cancer.
  • DES exposure in fetal life and vaginal adenocarcinoma.
  • OCP use and thromboembolic disease.
  • Thalidomide use in pregnancy and teratogenicity.
  • Matching is method to eliminate confounding bias. It is used in Case Control Study.
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Case Control Study

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