- The cornification index (the percentage of the cornified cells) is one simple method of assessing oestrogen activity.
- The vaginal cytology during the different phases of the menstrual cycle is as follows:
- Endometrial debris, red and white blood corpuscles and histocytes are present.
- The vaginal squames are immature in that they have basophilic cytoplasm; they are adherent or conglomerate and their nuclei are larger than those of mature cells.
Early proliferative phase.
- Polymorphs are few and squames tend to be discrete and more mature
- Their cytoplasm more acidophilic and their nuclei more pyknotic and smaller; the cornification index rises.
Late proliferative phase.
- As the oestrogen activity reaches its maximum, the squames become uniform and mature, and the nuclei are small and pyknotic.
- The cells are separate, and the cornification index is the highest.
Early secretory phase.
- The squames become clumped together in clusters.
- They are less mature, the cytoplasm is now largely basophilic, and the nuclei are bigger, less dark-staining and vesicular.
- The cells are no longer flat but appear to be folded with a crinkled or crumpled appearance.
- Some are pointed and characteristically spear shaped.
- The cornification index falls.
Late secretory phase.
- Intermediate precornified cells predominate.
- There is lack of cornification.
- Cytoplasm is basophilic—the cells are crumpled and folded.
- The nuclei are large, pale staining and vesicular.
- Pyknosis and concentration of nuclear substance are absent.
- Polymorphs are on the increase.
- The background ismucky.
- Cornification Index is maximum in Late proliferative phase
- Cornification index or eosinophilic index in the diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis indicates Estrogenic effect
- Hypercornification of duct is one of the Causative factor for acne
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