Drugs Against Cough

DRUGS AGAINST COUGH


DRUGS AGAINST COUGH

Introduction to cough:

  • Types:
    • Productive (with expectoration)
    • Non-productive (dry cough).
  • Dry cough – Suppressed by anti-tussive agent.
  • Productive cough – Suppressed by expectorants.

I) EXPECTORANTS:

  • MOA: By increasing bronchial secretions/by reducing its viscosity.
  • Drugs: Potassium iodide, Bromhexine & Ambroxol.

Individual drugs:

1. Potassium iodide:

MOA:

  • Direct action – By irritating bronchial glands.
  • Indirect action – By gastric irritation increasing bronchial secretions.

Drug effects:

  • Interferes with thyroid function tests.
    • On prolonged use – Cause hypothyroidism.
  • Cause acne flare-up in adolescents.

Contraindications:

  • In pregnancy – Risk of fetal hypothyroidism.
  • In iodine- sensitive patients.

2. Bromhexine:

  • Causes mucopolysaccharides depolymerization —> Resulting mucolysis (less viscid mucus).

3. Ambroxol:

  • Metabolite of bromhexine.
  • Also a mucolytic drug.

II) ANTITUSSIVE DRUGS:

  • Should be used only for dry (non-productive) cough.

MOA:

  • Suppresses cough by,
    • Direct action on CNS.
    • Indirect action by inhibiting cough impulses in respiratory tract.

Drugs:

  • Codeine, pholcodine, noscapine & dextromethorphan.

Exam Important

  • Dry cough is suppressed by anti-tussive agent.
  • Productive cough is suppressed by expectorants.
  • Expectorants increase bronchial secretions/by reducing its viscosity.
  • Potassium iodide, Bromhexine & Ambroxol are all expectorants.
  • Potassium iodide acts by irritating bronchial glands & Indirect action – By gastric irritation increasing bronchial secretions.
  • Potassium iodide interferes with thyroid function tests & their on prolonged use cause hypothyroidism.
  • KI cause acne flare-up in adolescents.
  • KI is contraindicated in pregnancy due to risk of fetal hypothyroidism & in iodine- sensitive patients.
  • Bromhexine causes mucopolysaccharides depolymerization —> Resulting mucolysis (less viscid mucus).
  • Ambroxol, metabolite of bromhexine is a mucolytic drug.
  • Antitussive drugs are used only for dry (non-productive) cough.
  • Codeine, pholcodine, noscapine & dextromethorphan are all antitussives.
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