Gastritis

Gastritis


GASTRITIS

  • Gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa.

Gastritis may be of 2 types-

  1. Acute
  2. Chronic

1. Acute gastritis-

  • It is a transient acute inflammatory involvement of the stomach, mainly mucosa.

Etiology-

  • Diet & personal habits- alcohol, smoking, malnutrition.
  • Infections- bacterial (H. Pylori), viral infections
  • Drugs- NSAIDs, aspirin, cortisone
  • Severe stress, trauma, surgery

Classification-

  1. Acute H. Pylori gastritis
  2. Acute infective gastritis
  3. Acute non- infective gastritis

Clinical features-

  • Epigastric pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Hypochlorhydria
  • Haematemesis or melaena
  • Anorexia

2. Chronic gastritis

  • Chronic gastritis has lymphocytes and plasma cells.
  • Erosive gastritis involves body and fundus both.
Staging-  

 Etiology

  • Reflux of duodenal contents into stomach.
  • Infection with H. Pylori
  • Disease of stomach & duodenum
  • Chronic hypochromic anaemia

Classification-

  • According to the predominant site of involvement-
  1. Type A- autoimmune gastritis (body predominant form)
  2. Type B- H.pylori related (antral predominant form)
  3. Type AB (environmental gastritis)

1. Type A- autoimmune gastritis

  • It mainly involves fundus & body.
  • Associated with pernicious anaemia.
  • Destruction of parietal cells.
  • Presence of circulating antibodies (anti IF antibodies)

Clinical features-

  • Intestinal metaplasia
  • Hypoachlorhydria- depletion of gastric acid producing mucosal area.
  • Hypergastrinaemia- hyperplasia of G cells.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency

2. Type B (H. Pylori related)

  • More common
  • H. Pylori is the cause of infection.
  • It involves the region of antral mucosa.
  • Also called as hypersecretory gastritis
  • Associated with peptic ulcer, cell lymphoma, gastric MALT lymphoma.

Treatment

  1. Acute gastritis-
  • Avoiding the cause
  • Antacids
  • Acid suppression (PPI or antiemetics)

2. Chronic gastritis

  • Patient with pernicious anaemia- parentral Vitamin B12 supplement
  • H. Pylori related gastritis- eradication of H. pylori

Exam Important

Acute gastritis-

  • It is a transient acute inflammatory involvement of the stomach, mainly mucosa.
  • Erosive gastritis involves body and fundus both.

 Type A- autoimmune gastritis

  • It mainly involves fundus & body.
  • Associated with pernicious anaemia.
  • Destruction of parietal cells.
  • Presence of circulating antibodies (anti IF antibodies)

Clinical features-

  • Intestinal metaplasia
  • Hypoachlorhydria- depletion of gastric acid producing mucosal area.
  • Hypergastrinaemia- hyperplasia of G cells.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency

2. Type B (H. Pylori related)

  • More common
  • H. Pylori is the cause of infection.
  • It involves the region of antral mucosa.
  • Also called as hypersecretory gastritis
  • Associated with peptic ulcer, cell lymphoma, gastric MALT lymphoma.
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Gastritis

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