Hypermetropia (Hyperopia)

HYPERMETROPIA (HYPEROPIA)


HYPERMETROPIA (HYPEROPIA)

  • Also c/d long-sightedness.
  • It is the refractive state of the eye wherein parallel rays of light coming from infinity are focused behind the retina with accommodation at rest.
  • Thus, the posterior focal point is behind the retina.
  • Patient can see distant objects more clearly but are unable to see objects properly that near him.
  • This is because hypermetropic eyes have problem in focusing the light on the retina from an object that is near & light is focused behind the retina-> Near objects are not clearly seen.
  • If the object is placed at a distance away from the eye, the point at which the light focuses properly will shift forward onto the retina-> An object which is positioned at a greater distance becomes distinct & the eye is said to be ‘long-sighted’.
  • Near point becomes distant.
  • Children with hypermetropia exclusively use accommodation which may cause accommodative convergent squint.

On examination findings are:

  1. Small eyeball & cornea
  2. Shallow anterior chamber
  3. Fundus shows pseudopapillitis & shot silk appearance.
  4. Degenerative retinoschisis

TREATMENT

  • Basic principle of treatment is to prescribe convex (plus) lens.
  • May be spectacles or contact lenses.
  • Corrective surgery may be required.

Exam Important

  • Causes of hypermetropia are short axial length of the eyeball, flat cornea & increased refractive index of the cortex of lens.
  • Shortening of 2 mm of axial length of eye ball causes 6D hypermetropia.
  • Angle closure glaucoma may be associated with Hypermetropia.
  • Over correction is preferable in Hypermetropia.
  • Refractive condition of the eye at birth is Hypermetropia of 2 D.
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