Mental Retardation

MENTAL RETARDATION


MENTAL RETARDATION

Introduction:

  • Condition characterized by incomplete development of intellectual functions & adaptive skills (skills for successful Iife).
  • Intelligence is measured by Intelligence Quotient (IQ).

Calculation method:

  • IQ = Mental age/Chronological age x 100 
    • Maximum denominator – 15 (even for elderly assessment).
  • IQ less than 70 – Considered as “mental retardation”.

Category & their IQ:

  • Normal – 90-109
  • Borderline – 70-89
  • Mild mental retardation – 50-69
  • Moderate mental retardation – 35-49
  • Severe mental retardation – 20-34
  • Profound mental retardation – <20.
  • Level of functioning varies with severity of mental retardation.

Causes: 

  • Down syndrome & fragile-X syndrome – Most common chromosomal cause.

Features:

  • Behavioral problems in mental retardation – Have maladaptive behavior (aggression, self injurious behaviors, hyperactivity, etc).

Management:

  • Modified by behavioral therapy techniques – Contingency management.
    • Desired behaviors rewarded & undesired behaviors punished.

Exam Important

  • Calculation for IQ = Mental age/Chronological age x 100.
  • IQ less than 70 is considered as “mental retardation”.
  • Down syndrome & fragile-X syndrome are the most common chromosomal cause of mental retardation.
  • Behavioral problems in mental retardation are managed by behavioral therapy techniques like contingency management.
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