Oesophagus

Oesophagus


OESOPHAGUS

  • It is a narrow muscular tube measuring 25 cm long connecting pharynx with stomach.
  • It begins as a continuation of laryngopharynx at the level of lower border of cricoid cartilage at the level of C6 vertebrae & passes through the diaphragm at the level of T10 through esophageal hitus of diaphragm.
  • It ends at T11 level by opening into cardiac orifice of stomach.
  • Oesophagus does not have straight course rather it presents anteroposterior curvatures.
  • It is lined by stratified squamous non-keratinised epithelium.
  • Esophagus is divided into three parts:  1) Cervical part (4 cm)   2) Thoracic part (20 cm)  3) Abdominal part (1-2 cm).
  • Approximately 2 cm of the esophagus lie below the diaphragm in the abdomen (abdominal part of esophagus).
  • Within this portion of esophagus the abdominal part of LES is located. Another 1-2 cm of LES lie above the diaphragm in mediastinum, i.e. thoracic part of LES.
  • Thus total length of LES is 3-4 cm.

 CONSTRICTIONS OF ESOPHAGUS

  • Oesophagus shows 4 constrictions-
  1. At its begining at C6 vertebra:- 15 cm (6 inches) from incisor.
  2. At the level of T4 vertebra where it is crossed by arch of aorta:- 22.5 cm (9 inches) from incisor.
  3. At the level of T6 vertebra where it is crossed by left principal bronchus:- 27.5 cm (11 inches) from incisor.
  4. At the level of T10 vertebra, its pasage through esophagal hiatus of diaphragm (lower esophageal sphincter):- 37.5-40 cm (15-16 inches) from incisor.
  • The narrowest part of the oesophagus is its commencement at the cricopharyngeal sphincter.

SITE

VERTEBRAL LEVEL

DISTANCE FROM CENTRAL INCISOR

CRICOPHARYNX

C6

15

AORTIC ARCH

T4

25

LEFT MAIN BRONCHUS

T6

28

OESOPHAGEAL HIATUS

T10

40

 BLOOD SUPPLY & LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE

  • Arterial supply of cervical part is by inferior thyroid artery, thoracic part by azygous vein, & abdominal part by left gastric artery & left inferior phrenic artery.
  • Venous drainage of cervical part is through inferior thyroid veins, thoracic part by azygous vein, & abdominal part by left gastric vein.
  • Lymphatic drainage of cervical part is by deep cervical nodes, thoracic part is by posterior mediastinal nodes & abdominal part is by left gastric nodes.
Exam Question
 
  • 3rd constriction of the oesophagus is at the level of Where it pierces the diapharm.
  • Barrett’s oesophagus is Lower esophagus lined by columnar ephithelium.
  • Ilnd constriction in oesophagus is seen at the Crossing of Aorta
  • Oesophagus crosses the diaphragm at the level of T10.
  • Arterial supply of cervical part is by inferior thyroid artery, thoracic part by azygous vein, & abdominal part by left gastric artery & left inferior phrenic artery.
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Oesophagus

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