Poison: Classification

Poison: Classification


  • Forensic  toxicology  deals  with  medical and  legal  aspects  of  the  harmful effects  of  the  chemicals  on  the  human  body. Paracelsus  is  called  father  of toxicology. Mathieu orfila  is  thought  of as  father  of modern  toxicology
  • Poison  is  a substance,  which may  be  liquid,  solid  or  gas,  which  when administered  in small quantity into  living  body  or brought  into  contact  with  any part  of it,  leads  to  injury  to  health or destruction  of life  by  its  action.

Classification of Poisons

(A) Corrosives or local (it erodes the surface with which it comes in contact)

(1) Strong Acids:

(2) Strong Alkali:

(B) Irritants: (they causes inflammation on the site of contact esp GIT, respiratory tract and skin).for eg- Capsicum Annuum (Chillies) when applied on the skin or mucosa cause irritation and pain but is not fatal even when taken internally.Also, Croton Tiglium  –  fatal dose is 4 seeds. Semecarpus Anacardium  –  fatal dose is 5 – 10 gm. Cantharides  –  fatal dose is 15 – 50 mh.

 Irritants cab be    (1) Inorganic  (2)  Mechanical. (3) Organic 

(C) Systemic:which involves toxic effect on a particular system or act on one or more systems of the body. These are:

  1. CNS depressants: Alcohol, opioids (Constricted pupil, Respiratory depression), Orthostatic hypotension
  2. CNS stimulants: antidepressants, amphetamine, caffeine
  3. Deliriants: dhatura(Pupil dilatation), balladona,cocaine
  4. Spinal: nux vomica, (strychnine),  gelsemium
  5. Peripheral: curare, conium
  6. Cardiotoxic poisons: aconite (mitha bish), quinine, tobacco, cyanide, Oleander,  Nicotine,  Digitalis (foxglove),  Hydrocyanic  acid.
  7. Asphyxiants: CO, H2S, CO2
  8. Nephrotoxic:  Oxalic Acid, Mercury,
  9. Cantherides Hepatotoxic: Phosphorus, Carbon tetrachloride, Chloroform .

Miscellaneous:  Agrochemicals, Pesticides: organophosphorous, Fumigants:alphos, Rhodenticides: thalium, Zn phosphide,  Drug dependence,  Petroleum products,  Food poisoning, Analgesic, Antipyretic.

Exam Important

Classification of Poisons

(A) Corrosives or local (it erodes the surface with which it comes in contact)

(1) Strong Acids:

(2) Strong Alkali:

(B) Irritants: (they causes inflammation on the site of contact esp GIT, respiratory tract and skin).for eg- Capsicum Annuum (Chillies) when applied on the skin or mucosa cause irritation and pain but is not fatal even when taken internally.Also, Croton Tiglium  –  fatal dose is 4 seeds. Semecarpus Anacardium  –  fatal dose is 5 – 10 gm. Cantharides  –  fatal dose is 15 – 50 mh.

 Irritants cab be    (1) Inorganic  (2)  Mechanical. (3) Organic 

(C) Systemic:which involves toxic effect on a particular system or act on one or more systems of the body. These are:

  1. CNS depressants: Alcohol, opioids (Constricted pupil, Respiratory depression), Orthostatic hypotension
  2. CNS stimulants: antidepressants, amphetamine, caffeine
  3. Deliriants: dhatura(Pupil dilatation), balladona,cocaine
  4. Spinal: nux vomica, (strychnine),  gelsemium
  5. Peripheral: curare, conium
  6. Cardiotoxic poisons: aconite (mitha bish), quinine, tobacco, cyanide, Oleander,  Nicotine,  Digitalis (foxglove),  Hydrocyanic  acid.
  7. Asphyxiants: CO, H2S, CO2
  8. Nephrotoxic:  Oxalic Acid, Mercury,
  9. Cantherides Hepatotoxic: Phosphorus, Carbon tetrachloride, Chloroform .

 

Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Poison: Classification

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