- Presbyopia is a vision condition in which the crystalline lens of eye loses its flexibility.
- Difficult to focus on the objects closer to the eye.
- Presbyopia is not an error of refraction but a condition of physiological insufficiency of accommodation leading to a progressive fall in near vision.
- Presbyopia is an age related problem, therefore also called eye sight of old age.
- Symptoms are usually seen after 40 years of age.
- Presbyopia is not a disease, rather a natural part of the aging process of the eye.
- Prescription is the prescription of appropriate convex glasses for near work.
Spasm of accommodation (PSEUDOMYOPIA)
- Pseudomyopia is caused by excessive ciliary muscle tone.
- Causes an increase in accommodation & this in turn results in crystalline lens to have more plus power.
- Found mainly in children who attempt to compensate their refractive error.
- Myopes are more affected than hypermetrops.
- Other causes of spasm of accommodation are: Drugs causing ciliary spasm (cholinergic drugs), prolonged near work.
- Patients present with diminution of distant vision while near vision is good (due to artificial myopia as result of excessive accommodation) & marked eye strain.
- Paralysis of accommodation also c/d cycloplegia.
- Refers to complete absence of accommodation.
- As accommodation cannot occur, blurring of near vision occurs.
- Drug induced paralysis of ciliary muscles- Atropine, homatropine, parasympatholytic drugs.
- Internal ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of ciliary muscle & sphincter papillae)- Diptheria, Syphillis, Diabetes etc.
- Complete third nerve paralysis
- Presbyopia is due to loss of elasticity of lens capsule, weakness of ciliary muscle & weakness of suspensory ligament.
- Hyperopia is the refractive problem most closely resembles presbyopia.
- Treatment of presbyopia is by use of Convex lens.
- Excessive accommodation may result in Pseudomyopia.
- Pilocarpine drug causing spasm of accommodation.
- Paralysis of accommodation also called cycloplegia.
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