PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY

PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY


INTRODUCTION:

  • BY ERIK.H.ERICKSON (1963)
  • Erik Erikson was a follower of Sigmund Freud who broke with his teacher over the fundamental point of what motivates or drives human behavior.
  • For Freud it was biology or more specifically the biological instincts of life and aggression. 

ERIKSON’S THEORY:

  • His developmental theory of the “Eight Stages of Man” was unique in that it covered the entire lifespan rather than childhood and adolescent development.
  • Erikson’s view was that the social environment combined with biological maturation provides each individual with a set of “crises” that must be resolved.
  • The individual is provided with a “sensitive period” in which to successfully resolve each crisis before a new crisis is presented. 
  • The results of the resolution, whether successful or not, are carried forward to the next crisis and provide the foundation for its resolution.

ERIKSON’S EIGHT STAGES:

Stage 1: Basic Trust vs. Mistrust

  • Birth to age 1
  • Totally dependent on others
  • Caregiver meets needs: child develops trust
  • Caregiver does not meet needs: child develops mistrust
  • Basic strength: Hope
    • Belief our desires will be satisfied
    • Feeling of confidence

 Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

  • Ages 1-3
  • Child able to exercise some degree of choice
  • Child’s independence is thwarted: child develops feelings of self-doubt, shame in dealing with others
  • Basic Strength: Will 
    • Determination to exercise freedom of choice in face of society’s demands

Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt

  • Ages 3-5
  • Child expresses desire to take initiative in activities
  • Parents punish child for initiative: child develops feelings of guilt that will affect self-directed activity throughout life
  • Basic strength: Purpose
    • Courage to envision and pursue goals

Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority

  • Ages 6-11
  • Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in task completion (school work, play)
  • Parents/teachers do not support child’s efforts: child develops feelings of inferiority and inadequacy
  • Basic strength: Competence
    • Exertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing and completing tasks

Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion

  • Ages 12-18
  • Form ego identity: self-image
  • Strong sense of identity: face adulthood with certainty and confidence
  • Identity crisis: confusion of ego identity
  • Basic strength: Fidelity
    • Emerges from cohesive ego identity
    • Sincerity, genuineness, sense of duty in relationships with others

Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation

  • Ages 18-35 (approximately)
  • Undertake productive work and establish intimate relationships
  • Inability to establish intimacy leads to social isolation
  • Basic strength: Love
    • Mutual devotion in a shared identity
    • Fusing of oneself with another person

Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation

  • Ages 35-55 (approximately)
  • Generativity: Active involvement in teaching/guiding the next generation
  • Stagnation involves not seeking outlets for generativity
  • Basic strength: Care
    • Broad concern for others
    • Need to teach others

Stage 8: Ego Integrity vs. Despair

  • Ages 55+
  • Evaluation of entire life
  • Integrity: Look back with satisfaction
  • Despair: Review with anger, frustration
  • Basic strength: Wisdom
    • Detached concern with the whole of life
  • Stages 1-4
    • Largely determined by others (parents, teachers)
  • Stages 5-8
    • Individual has more control over environment
    • Individual responsibility for crisis resolution in each stage

MERITS:

  • Based on age wise classification of an individual. Hence easy to apply at any stage of  development.
  • Simple & comprehensive to understand.

DEMERITS:

  • Based on extreme ends of personality.

Exam Important

  • BY ERIK.H.ERICKSON (1963)
  • Erik Erikson was a follower of Sigmund Freud who broke with his teacher over the fundamental point of what motivates or drives human behavior.
  • For Freud it was biology or more specifically the biological instincts of life and aggression. 
  • His developmental theory of the “Eight Stages of Man” was unique in that it covered the entire lifespan rather than childhood and adolescent development.
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY

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