- Treatment of psychiatric disorders by using psychological methods.
- Most important method – Behavior therapy.
- Psychological treatment where patient’s maladaptive behaviors changed to improve quality of life.
- “Behavior therapy” is generic term – Used to describe a variety of specific techniques intended to remove maladaptive behaviors.
Techniques of behavior therapy:
- Systematic desensitization.
- Therapeutic graded exposure or in vivo exposure (or exposure & response prevention)
- Flooding (Implosion).
- Modeling (Participant modeling).
- Assertiveness training.
- Social skills training.
- Aversive conditioning (Aversion therapy).
- Based on “reciprocal inhibition” principle.
- According to this principle, f anxiety-provoking stimulus provided while a person is in relaxed state, the anxiety gets inhibited.
- Used in treatment of phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorders & certain sexual disorders.
Therapeutic graded exposure or in vivo exposure (or exposure & response prevention):
- Similar to systematic desensitization except that no relaxation techniques used & real-life situations used.
- Used in phobias & obsessive-compulsive disorder.
- Patient made to confront feared situation directly, without any hierarchy (as in systematic desensitisation or graded exposure & no relaxation exercises used).
Modeling (Participant modeling):
- Therapist himself makes contact with phobic stimulus & demonstrates patient.
- Patient learns by imitation & observation.
- Person is taught to be assertive (asking for his rights & refusing unjust demands of others).
Social skills training:
- Involves imparting skills required for dealing with others & living a social life.
- Used in schizophrenia.
Aversive conditioning (Aversion therapy):
- Clinical use of classical conditioning principle.
- An association created between unwanted behavior & painful stimuli —> unwanted behavior ceases.
- Now rarely used due to ethical considerations.
- Used for unwanted behaviors treatment (paraphilias).
Indications for behavior therapy:
- Primarily in anxiety disorders treatment (like phobia, panic disorders).
- Also used in depression, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, sexual disorders, personality disorders, substance used disorders & schizophrenia.
- Most important method in psychotherapy is behavior therapy.
- Techniques used in behavious therapy includes Systematic desensitization, therapeutic graded exposure or in vivo exposure (or exposure & response prevention), flooding (Implosion), modeling (participant modeling), assertiveness training, social skills training & aversive conditioning (aversion therapy).
- Systemic desensitization is based on “reciprocal inhibition” principle.
- Systemic desensitization used in treatment of phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorders & certain sexual disorders.
- Therapeutic graded exposure is also referred as in-vivo exposure/exposure & response prevention.
- Exposure & response prevention is used in phobia treatment.
- Aversive conditioning is used for unwanted behaviors treatment (paraphilias).