Structure & function:

→ Are spherical or cylindrical bodies with 2 lipid bilayer-protein membranes (Outer & Inner membrane)

→ Described as “Powerhouse of cell” – Presence of Enzymes for Energy metabolism & ATP synthesis.

→ Contains independent DNA apart from Nucleus.

→ Functions: Importing & self-synthesizing of Protein.

Metabolic pathways:

→ Fatty Acid Oxidation, Electron Transport Chain (ETC) & Krebs (TCA / Citric acid) cycle & Oxidative Phosphorylation.

→ Urea Cycle & Gluconeogenesis – Initial steps in Mitochondria  Later steps in Cytosol.

Mitochondrial enzymes:

Location Enzyme
Intra-crystal / Intra-membrane space
  • Creatine Kinase & Adenyl Kinase
Inner Membrane
  • Succinate Dehydrogenase & ATP synthase
Mitochondrial Matrix
  • Pyruvate & Glutamate Dehydrogenase.
  • For Citric Acid Cycle, β-Oxidation of Fatty acid, Urea Cycle

“MARKER ENZYMES” – Enzymes in Matrix, Inner Membrane & Inter-membrane space

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