Age Identification From Bones

AGE IDENTIFICATION FROM BONES

Q. 1

For age determination of 21 year old female , site for X-ray done

 A

Elbow and shoulder

 B

Wrist

 C

Hip and knee

 D

Iliac crest and clavicle

Q. 1

For age determination of 21 year old female , site for X-ray done

 A

Elbow and shoulder

 B

Wrist

 C

Hip and knee

 D

Iliac crest and clavicle

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. Iliac crest & clavicle

The following data is used for radiologically age determination.

Region selected for

X Ray

Age

Girls

Boys

ElbowQ

13 -14

15 -17

WristQ

16 – 17

18 – 19

Shoulder

17-18

19-20

Crest of IliumQ

18 -19

20 – 21

Ischial Tuberosity

21 – 220

23 – 24Q

Inner end of

clavicle

 

 

* Way of remembering : By radiological examination of wrist we can determine age of 16, 17, 18, 19; From shoulder 17, 18, 19, 20 & from crest of ilium examination 18, 19, 20, 21. These all are 4 continuous numbers starting from 16 from wrist, 17 for shoulder & 18 for crest of ilium. Also remember that Pt two years are for girls & last two for boys. Radiological examination of elbow is done for age determination before this i.e. 13 – 16 yrs. & R.E. of Ischial tuberosity & Clavicle inner end is done for 21, 22, 23, 24 age group (Ist 2 years for girls & last 2 years for boys).


Q. 2

Which of the following X-ray should be advised for age determination between 1-13 years of age

 A

Shoulder

 B

Wrist

 C

Elbow

 D

Iliac bones

Q. 2

Which of the following X-ray should be advised for age determination between 1-13 years of age

 A

Shoulder

 B

Wrist

 C

Elbow

 D

Iliac bones

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans is ‘b’ i.e., Wrist

Radiograph used to determine skeletal age

o 3-9 months –> Shoulder

o 1-13 years —> Hand and wrist

o 12-14 years —> Elbow and hip


Q. 3

Average age of iliac crest fusion in Indian females:

AIIMS 14

 A

16 years

 B

18 years

 C

19 years

 D

21 years

Q. 3

Average age of iliac crest fusion in Indian females:

AIIMS 14

 A

16 years

 B

18 years

 C

19 years

 D

21 years

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. 19 years

Quiz In Between


Q. 4

The suture marked in the picture below usually closes by the age of ?

[img id=4599]

 A

6 months

 B

2 years

 C

3 years

 D

6 years

Q. 4

The suture marked in the picture below usually closes by the age of ?

[img id=4599]

 A

6 months

 B

2 years

 C

3 years

 D

6 years

Ans. D

Explanation:

The suture marked by an arrow above represents metopic suture.

  • The metopic suture (also known as the median frontal suture) is a type of calvarial suture. It is often associated with frontal sinus agenesis or hypoplasia.
  • This suture runs through the midline across the frontal bone from the nasion to the bregma although it may often be incomplete.
  • The metopic suture is usually closed by about 6 years of age, but in rare cases it can persist  as an anatomical variant of little clinical significance but that it can be mistaken for frontal bone fracture.
  • A premature fusion of the suture is termed metopic synostosis (type of  craniosynostosis) which can then result in trigonocephaly.
[img id=7941]

Q. 5

Estimate the approximate age of the child from the X-ray given below?

[img id=4514]

 A

Below 2 years.

 B

Below 3 years.

 C

Below 4 years.

 D

Below 5 years.

Q. 5

Estimate the approximate age of the child from the X-ray given below?

[img id=4514]

 A

Below 2 years.

 B

Below 3 years.

 C

Below 4 years.

 D

Below 5 years.

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans;A).Below 2 years

The given  X-ray is of a child who is below 2 years of age as their is no ossific centre in the wrist.

Ossification of the wrist can be divided into two components:

  • carpal bone ossification centres
  • distal radial and ulna ossification centres

Ossification of the carpal bones

Ossification of the carpal bones occurs in a predictable sequence, starting with the capitate and ending with the pisiform.

At birth, there is no calcification in the carpal bones. Although there is great individual variability, approximate ossification times are as follows:

  • capitate: 1-3 months
  • hamate:  2-4 months
  • triquetrum: 2-3 years
  • lunate: 2-4 years
  • scaphoid: 4-6 years
  • trapezium: 4-6 years
  • trapezoid: 4-6 years
  • pisiform: 8-12 years

Excluding the pisiform, a handy way to remember the order of ossification is to start at the capitate then move in a counterclockwise direction on the volar surface of the right carpus.

Ossification centres of the distal radius and ulna

  • distal radius: 1 year
  • distal ulna: 5-6 years

Q. 6

By looking at the X-ray given below estimate the approximate age of the child?

[img id=4513]

 A

Above 2 years.

 B

Below 2 years.

 C

Above 5 Years.

 D

Below 5 years.

Q. 6

By looking at the X-ray given below estimate the approximate age of the child?

[img id=4513]

 A

Above 2 years.

 B

Below 2 years.

 C

Above 5 Years.

 D

Below 5 years.

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans;A).Above 2 years.

The approximate age of the child is above 2 years as in the given X-ray there is an ossific centre of lower radius.

Ossification of the wrist can be divided into two components:

  • carpal bone ossification centres
  • distal radial and ulna ossification centres

Ossification of the carpal bones

Ossification of the carpal bones occurs in a predictable sequence, starting with the capitate and ending with the pisiform.

At birth, there is no calcification in the carpal bones. Although there is great individual variability, approximate ossification times are as follows:

  • capitate: 1-3 months
  • hamate:  2-4 months
  • triquetrum: 2-3 years
  • lunate: 2-4 years
  • scaphoid: 4-6 years
  • trapezium: 4-6 years
  • trapezoid: 4-6 years
  • pisiform: 8-12 years

Excluding the pisiform, a handy way to remember the order of ossification is to start at the capitate then move in a counterclockwise direction on the volar surface of the right carpus.

Ossification centres of the distal radius and ulna

  • distal radius: 1 year
  • distal ulna: 5-6 years

Q. 7

According to Galstaun method, iliac crest fuses in females at the age of:

 A

13-15 years

 B

15-17 years

 C

17-19 years

 D

19-20 years

Q. 7

According to Galstaun method, iliac crest fuses in females at the age of:

 A

13-15 years

 B

15-17 years

 C

17-19 years

 D

19-20 years

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. c. 17-19 years

According to Galstaun method, iliac crest fuses in females at the age of 17-19 years.

Galstaun 1937 On Bengalis (Indian): Epiphyseal Fusion in Iliac Crest; Male: 19-20 years and Female: 17-19 years.’ http://medind.nic.in/jal/t11/il/jaltIlilp24.pdf Estimation of Age from Epiphyseal Fusion in Iliac Crest (J Indian Acad Forensic Med. Jan-Mar 2011, Vol. 33, No. 1) Table no. 4

Galstaun G observed fusion of iliac crest in bengalee girls, between 17-19 years which is earlier. Dasgupta et al in Uttar Pradesh found fusion of the iliac crest at 19-20 years, which is similar with majority of the cases in this study. Sank/cyan S et al in Himachal Pradesh found fusion of the iliac crest in girls at 21 years which is a little later than the finding in this study.’

Quiz In Between



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