Candida: Clinical Manifestations

Candida: Clinical Manifestations

Q. 1

An old man who is on chemotherapy presented with complaints of white patches in his mouth. During examination the physician tried to wipe off the lesion but it was adherent to mucosa. Further investigations proved that to be candidal leukoplakia. Regarding canidal leukoplakia, consider the following:

Assertion: Candidal leukoplakia mostly affects anterior buccal mucosa just behind the angle of mouth.

Reason: Hence it can be treated by topical application of nystatin or clotrimazole

 A

Both Assertion and Reason are true, and Reason is the correct explanation for Assertion

 B

Both Assertion and Reason are true, and Reason is not the correct explanation for Assertion

 C

Assertion is true, but Reason is false

 D

Assertion is false, but Reason is true

Q. 1

An old man who is on chemotherapy presented with complaints of white patches in his mouth. During examination the physician tried to wipe off the lesion but it was adherent to mucosa. Further investigations proved that to be candidal leukoplakia. Regarding canidal leukoplakia, consider the following:

Assertion: Candidal leukoplakia mostly affects anterior buccal mucosa just behind the angle of mouth.

Reason: Hence it can be treated by topical application of nystatin or clotrimazole

 A

Both Assertion and Reason are true, and Reason is the correct explanation for Assertion

 B

Both Assertion and Reason are true, and Reason is not the correct explanation for Assertion

 C

Assertion is true, but Reason is false

 D

Assertion is false, but Reason is true

Ans. C

Explanation:

Candidal leukoplakia or chronic hypertrophic candidiasis caused by candida albicans usually requires excisional surgery.

Oral thrush can be treated by topical application of nystatin or clotrimazole.


Q. 2

Candida albicans causes all of the following except –

 A

Endocarditis

 B

Mycetoma

 C

Meningitis

 D

Oral thrush

Q. 2

Candida albicans causes all of the following except –

 A

Endocarditis

 B

Mycetoma

 C

Meningitis

 D

Oral thrush

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Mycetoma

Candidiasis

Candidiasis is the most common systemic mycosis.

Candidiasis is an opportunistic endogenous infection

 

Candidiasis

 

Mucocutaneous

.    Oral thrush

  • Oesophageal thrush

.      Vulvovaginal thrush

.      Candida esophagitis (involves lower 3rd of esophagus)

.      Diarrhea

  • Chronic fatigue synd

Systemic

. Cystitis, pyelitis or renal papillary necrosis

. Pneumonia

. Endophthalmitis

. Vertebral osteomyelitis

. Arthritis (M.C. knee)

. Endocarditis (previously or prosthetic valve)

. Meningitis

Chronic mucocutaneous
Candidiasis (CMC)

or Candidal granuloma

 

 

 

damaged


Q. 3

Candida is most often implicated in causation

 A

Conjunctivitis

 B

Tinea capitis

 C

Desert rheumatism

 D

Thrush

Q. 3

Candida is most often implicated in causation

 A

Conjunctivitis

 B

Tinea capitis

 C

Desert rheumatism

 D

Thrush

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d’ i.e., Thrush


Q. 4

An otherwise healthy male presents with a creamy curd like white patch on the tongue. The probable diagnosis is

 A

Candidiasis

 B

Histoplasmosis

 C

Lichen Planus

 D

Aspergillosis

Q. 4

An otherwise healthy male presents with a creamy curd like white patch on the tongue. The probable diagnosis is

 A

Candidiasis

 B

Histoplasmosis

 C

Lichen Planus

 D

Aspergillosis

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Candidiasis


Q. 5

Commonest fungal infection of the female genitalia in diabetes is:

 A

Cryptococcal

 B

Madura mycosis

 C

Candidial

 D

Aspergellosis

Q. 5

Commonest fungal infection of the female genitalia in diabetes is:

 A

Cryptococcal

 B

Madura mycosis

 C

Candidial

 D

Aspergellosis

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. Candidial


Q. 6

A washerman presents with thickness erosion & discolouration of web spaces of toes diagnosis is:

 A

Psoriasis

 B

Tinea Unguum

 C

Both

 D

Candidiasis

Q. 6

A washerman presents with thickness erosion & discolouration of web spaces of toes diagnosis is:

 A

Psoriasis

 B

Tinea Unguum

 C

Both

 D

Candidiasis

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e Candidiasis


Q. 7

Common causes of otitis externa:

 A

Aspergillus

 B

Mucor

 C

Candida

 D

a and c

Q. 7

Common causes of otitis externa:

 A

Aspergillus

 B

Mucor

 C

Candida

 D

a and c

Ans. D

Explanation:

 

  • Otitis externa is an inflammatory and infectious process of the external auditory canal which is seen in all ages and both sexes.
  • M/C organism causing otitis externa are

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Staphylococcus aureus

  • Less commonly isolated organisms are ‑
  1. Proteus species
  2. Staphylococcus epidermidis
  3. Diphtheroids
  4. E. coli

Fungal Otitis Externa/Otomycosis

  • In 80% of cases organism is aspergillus
  • 2nd M/C organism is candida

Other more rare fungal pathogens include

  • Phycomycetes
  • Rhizopus
  • Actinomyces
  • Penicillium



Q. 8

Causes of Otomycosis:

 A

Candida

 B

Aspergillus

 C

Thermophilus

 D

a and b

Q. 8

Causes of Otomycosis:

 A

Candida

 B

Aspergillus

 C

Thermophilus

 D

a and b

Ans. D

Explanation:

Q. 9

The commonest fungal lesion of the eyelid is:

 

 A

Candida

 B

Aspergillosis

 C

Sporothrix

 D

None

Q. 9

The commonest fungal lesion of the eyelid is:

 

 A

Candida

 B

Aspergillosis

 C

Sporothrix

 D

None

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. Candida


Q. 10

Most common fungal infection in neutropenic patient is:

September 2005

 A

Candidiasis

 B

Aspergillosis

 C

Histoplasmosis

 D

None of the above

Q. 10

Most common fungal infection in neutropenic patient is:

September 2005

 A

Candidiasis

 B

Aspergillosis

 C

Histoplasmosis

 D

None of the above

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. A: Candidiasis

The most common fungal pathogens associated with invasive disease in humans are opportunistic yeasts (e.g., Candida albicans) or filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus spp.).


Q. 11

Another name for oral thrush is ‑

 A

Candidiasis

 B

Herpangina

 C

Vincent’s infection

 D

Hand foot and mouth disease

Q. 11

Another name for oral thrush is ‑

 A

Candidiasis

 B

Herpangina

 C

Vincent’s infection

 D

Hand foot and mouth disease

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Candidiasis

Monoliasis (Candidiasis)

  • It is the fungal infection of the oral cavity. It is caused by candida albicans and occurs in two forms: Thrush
  • It manifests as greyish white patches on the oral mucosa and tongue.
  • When wiped off it leaves an erythematous mucosa.
  • This is more common in infants and children. Adults suffering fro diabetes, malignancy, taking broad spectrum oral antibiotics, radiation, cytotoxic drugs or steroids can also be affected.
  • It is treated by topical application of nystatin or clotrimazole.
  • Chronic Hypertrophic Candidiasis (Candidial Leukoplakia)
  • Appears as a white patch in the oral cavity which cannot be wiped off.
  • It mostly affects the anterior buccal mucosa just behind the angle of mouth.
  • It is treated by excision of the lesion.

Q. 12

Most common organism causing fungal infection of oral cavity ‑

 A

Candida

 B

Blastomycosis

 C

Aspergillosis

 D

Cryptococcus

Q. 12

Most common organism causing fungal infection of oral cavity ‑

 A

Candida

 B

Blastomycosis

 C

Aspergillosis

 D

Cryptococcus

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Candida

The most prevalent fungal infections in oral cavity are those caused by Candida species, especially C. albicans.

Candidiasis (Moniliasis)

Candidiasis is the most common systemic mycosis.

Candidiasis is an opportunistic endogenous infection and is the most common fungal infection in neutropenic patients. Candida is the most common fungal infection in immunocompetent persons as well.


Q. 13

A HIV positive female presents with this tongue. Laboratory findings show growth in cornmeal agar at 20 degree celcius, microscopy showing hyphae and growth in human serum at 37 degree celcius show budding yeasts. The probable cause is.

 A

Candida albicans

 B

Histoplasmosis

 C

Blastomycosis

 D

Coccidioidomycosis

Q. 13

A HIV positive female presents with this tongue. Laboratory findings show growth in cornmeal agar at 20 degree celcius, microscopy showing hyphae and growth in human serum at 37 degree celcius show budding yeasts. The probable cause is.

 A

Candida albicans

 B

Histoplasmosis

 C

Blastomycosis

 D

Coccidioidomycosis

Ans. B

Explanation:

This present indurated ulcer

‘a’ i.e., Candida Albicans

  • Oral Thrush d/t candida are common in HIV patients.
  • Oral Thrush presents as discrete & coagulant adherent white plaques on the oral & pharyngeal mucosa particularly in the mouth and on the tongue.
  • All candida species pathogenic for humans grow rapidly at 25° to 37° C on simple media as oval budding cells.

Q. 14

Identify the infection in Vagina as shown in the photograph below ? 

 A

Candidiasis.

 B

HIV.

 C

Bacterial vaginosis.

 D

Syphilis.

Q. 14

Identify the infection in Vagina as shown in the photograph below ? 

 A

Candidiasis.

 B

HIV.

 C

Bacterial vaginosis.

 D

Syphilis.

Ans. A

Explanation:

The infection in vagina as shown in the photograph above represents candidiasis as it shows the presence of white, thick, curd like discharge.

Candidiasis is caused by Candida albinism which thrives in an acidic medium with an abundant supply of carbohydrates. It is found commonly in pregnancy, and in patients on oral contraceptives, antibiotics and corticosteroids. It is also seen in patients with diabetes. It causes a profuse discharge and intense pruritus with soreness of vagina and dysuriA. Vagina and vulva are edematous and excoriated and the white patches of cheesy material on the vagina and vulva can be easily identifieD. A 10% KOH smear shows the buds and hyphae of the Candida organism. Nystatin or ketoconazole vaginal tablets used for one week are curative when used along with a cream of the same medication for external use.



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