Clostridium Perfringens

Clostridium Perfringens

Q. 1

Life-threatening intravascular hemolysis, due to a toxin with lecithinase activity, occurs with sepsis due to:

 A

Pseudomonas

 B

Babesia

 C

Parvovirus B 19

 D

Clostridium perfringens

Q. 1

Life-threatening intravascular hemolysis, due to a toxin with lecithinase activity, occurs with sepsis due to:

 A

Pseudomonas

 B

Babesia

 C

Parvovirus B 19

 D

Clostridium perfringens

Ans. D

Explanation:

Life-threatening intravascular hemolysis, due to a toxin with lecithinase activity, occurs with Clostridium perfringens sepsis.


Reference:
Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th Edition, Page 881

Q. 2

Opacity around colonies of clostridium perfringens is due to –

 A

Theta toxin

 B

lecithinase

 C

Desmolase

 D

Cytokinin

Q. 2

Opacity around colonies of clostridium perfringens is due to –

 A

Theta toxin

 B

lecithinase

 C

Desmolase

 D

Cytokinin

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Lecithinase 

.  Lecithinase (phospholipase) in the presence of Ca’ and Mg” ions, splits lecithin into phosphorylcholine and diacylglycerol. This reaction is seen as an opalescence in serum or egg yolk media.


Q. 3

. Each of the following statements concerning clostridium perfringes is correct except ‑

 A

It causes gas gangrene

 B

It causes food poisoning

 C

It produces exotoxin

 D

It is a gram negative rod that does not ferment lactose

Q. 3

. Each of the following statements concerning clostridium perfringes is correct except ‑

 A

It causes gas gangrene

 B

It causes food poisoning

 C

It produces exotoxin

 D

It is a gram negative rod that does not ferment lactose

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d’ i.e., It is a gram negative rod that does not ferment lactose

Clostridium perfringens is gram positive bacteria that ferments lactose.

Infections caused by cl.perfringens

.    Clostridium perfringens produces the following human infections :

i)         Gas gangrene

– Type A is the predominant organism

ii)       Food poisoning

.            Mainly by Type A strain.

.            The food sources primarily involved are meat, meat products and poultry.

.            Incubation period is 8 -24 hrs.

.            Nausea, diarrhea and epigastric pain are the usual symptoms. Fever and vomiting are uncommon.

iii) Necrotizing enteritis (enteritis necroticans or pigbel)

.    Caused by (3 toxin produced by type ‘c ‘strain ofC perfringens following high protein meal in conjuction with trypsin inhibitors (e.g. is sweet potatoes).

iv) Gangrenous appendicitis

.            Caused by Type A (and occasinally Type D)

v)       Neutropenic enterocolitis (Typhlitis)

vi)     Biliary tract infection

.            Acute emphysematous cholecystitis and post cholecystectomy septicemia.

vii) Endogenous gas gangrene of intra abdominal origin

.            As a complication of abdominal surgery.

viii)  Brain abscess and meningitis

ix)     Panophthalmitis

x)       Thoracic infections : empyema

xi)     Urogenital infections

.            following nephrectomy

.    associated with septic abortion

xii) Bacteremia and clostridial sepsis Also Remember

.   C. perfringens is the most common of the Clostridial species isolated from tissue infections and bacteremia.

.   An association has been made between malignancy of GI. tract (colon) and the isolation of C. septicum.


Q. 4

Preformed toxin is important in food poisoning due to all EXCEPT –

 A

Staph aureus

 B

Clostridium botulism

 C

ETEC

 D

B.cereus

Q. 4

Preformed toxin is important in food poisoning due to all EXCEPT –

 A

Staph aureus

 B

Clostridium botulism

 C

ETEC

 D

B.cereus

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., ETEC (Enterotoxigenic E.coli)

Preformed toxin causes food poisoning .Staph aureus

. Bacillus cereus

. Clostridium botulism.

. Clostridium perfringens


Q. 5

Heat stable enterotoxin causing food poisoning is caused by all the following except –

 A

Bacillus cereus

 B

Yersinia enterocolitica

 C

Staphylococcus

 D

Clostridium perfringens

Q. 5

Heat stable enterotoxin causing food poisoning is caused by all the following except –

 A

Bacillus cereus

 B

Yersinia enterocolitica

 C

Staphylococcus

 D

Clostridium perfringens

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d’ i.e., Clostridium Perfringens

Heat labile toxin

Heat stable toxins

.    Clostridium perfringens

.     Staph aureus

. LT of ETEC

.     Y. enterocolitica (Harrison 15th/e 999)

.    V. cholerae

. ST of ETEC

.    Diarrheal form of B. cereus

.     Emetic form of B. cereus

(Similar to LT of ETEC)

(Similar to staph. enterotoxin)


Q. 6

Not seen in faecal pollution –

 A

Staphylococcus

 B

Streptococcus

 C

E. coli

 D

Clostridium perfringens

Q. 6

Not seen in faecal pollution –

 A

Staphylococcus

 B

Streptococcus

 C

E. coli

 D

Clostridium perfringens

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e. Staphylococcus 


Q. 7

In doubtful cases, the presence of which organism confirms the fecal contamination of water-

 A

Protozoa

 B

Yeast

 C

Clostridium perfringes 

 D

Fungi

Q. 7

In doubtful cases, the presence of which organism confirms the fecal contamination of water-

 A

Protozoa

 B

Yeast

 C

Clostridium perfringes 

 D

Fungi

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Clostridium perfringes 


Q. 8

Which of the following is considered as an ideal bac­teriological indicator as acceptability aspect of water:

March 2013 (d)

 A

Clostridium tetani

 B

Clostridium botulinum

 C

Clostridium perfringenes

 D

All of the above

Q. 8

Which of the following is considered as an ideal bac­teriological indicator as acceptability aspect of water:

March 2013 (d)

 A

Clostridium tetani

 B

Clostridium botulinum

 C

Clostridium perfringenes

 D

All of the above

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. C i.e. Clostridium perfringenes

Clostridium perfringens

  • Gram-positive, spore-forming, non-motile, strictly anaerobic rods that reduce sulphite to H2S, but also ferment lactose, sucrose and inositol with the production of gas, produce a stormy clot fermentation with milk, reduce nitrate, hydrolyse gelatin and produce lecithinase and acid phosphatase.
  • Bonde (1963) suggested that not all SRC (sulphite reducing clostridia) in receiving waters are indicators of faecal pollution, hence C. perfringens is the appropriate indicator.

Q. 9

Subterminal spores are seen in ‑

 A

Cl perfringens

 B

Cl tetani

 C

Cl tertium

 D

None

Q. 9

Subterminal spores are seen in ‑

 A

Cl perfringens

 B

Cl tetani

 C

Cl tertium

 D

None

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Cl perfringens


Q. 10

Double zone of hemolysis is seen in ‑

 A

Staphylococcus areus

 B

Streptococcus pyogenes

 C

Clostridium perfringens

 D

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Q. 10

Double zone of hemolysis is seen in ‑

 A

Staphylococcus areus

 B

Streptococcus pyogenes

 C

Clostridium perfringens

 D

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Clostridium perfringens

Two important characteristic feature of Cl. perfringens are :‑

  1. Target hemolysis (double zone hemolysis) on blood agar. It is a narrow zone of complete hemolysis by theta toxin which is surrounded by a wider incomplete hemolysis by alpha-toxin.
  2. Naegler’s reaction detects alpha toxin (phospholipase or lecithinase C). When CL. perfringens is grown on a medium with the antitoxin spread on one half of the plate, colonies on the other half without the antitoxin will be surrounded by a zone of opacity. There will be no opacity around the colonies on the half of the plate with the antitoxin, due to the specific neutralisation of the alpha-toxin.

Q. 11

Spores of clostridium perfringens are located ‑

 A

In the middle of cells

 B

At the poles of cells

 C

Between middle and pole of cells

 D

None of the above

Q. 11

Spores of clostridium perfringens are located ‑

 A

In the middle of cells

 B

At the poles of cells

 C

Between middle and pole of cells

 D

None of the above

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Between middle and pole of cells

Spores of clostridia may be :‑

  1. Terminal : Located at poles.
  2. Central : Locate in the middle of the cells.
  3. Subterminal : Between middle of the cell and pole of the cells.


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