Drowning

Drowning

Q. 1

All of the following are seen in the lungs in fresh water drowning, EXCEPT:

 A

Lungs are ballooned and light

 B

Colour is pink

 C

Emphysematous

 D

No crepitus heard

Q. 1

All of the following are seen in the lungs in fresh water drowning, EXCEPT:

 A

Lungs are ballooned and light

 B

Colour is pink

 C

Emphysematous

 D

No crepitus heard

Ans. D

Explanation:

Crepitus is heard in fresh water drowning, but it is absent in sea water drowning.
 
Difference in lungs between freshwater and seawater drowning:

 

Trait

Freshwater drowning

Seawater drowning

Size and weight

Ballooned but light

Ballooned and heavy; weight upto 2 kg

Colour

Pale pink

Purplish or bluish

Consistency

Emphysematous

Soft and jelly like

Shape after removal from the body

Retained; do not collapse

Not retained; tend to flatten out

Sectioning

Crepitus is heard

Little froth and no fluid

No crepitus. Copious fluid and froth

Ref: The Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology by K S Narayan Reddy, 27th edition, Page 326.


Q. 2

In each freshwater drowning the death occurs within 4-5 minutes of submersion due to ventricular fibrillation. Which of the following reasons is responsible for this?

 A

Total asphyxia is produced due to fresh water

 B

Laryngospasm causing vagal inhibition

 C

Haemoconcentration of blood caused by the osmotic pressure effect

 D

Haemodilution, overloading of heart and haemolysis resulting in release of Potassium

Q. 2

In each freshwater drowning the death occurs within 4-5 minutes of submersion due to ventricular fibrillation. Which of the following reasons is responsible for this?

 A

Total asphyxia is produced due to fresh water

 B

Laryngospasm causing vagal inhibition

 C

Haemoconcentration of blood caused by the osmotic pressure effect

 D

Haemodilution, overloading of heart and haemolysis resulting in release of Potassium

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. Hemodilution, overloading of heart and hemolysis resulting in release of potassium


Q. 3

Hyperventilation before drowning :

 A

Can cause death

 B

Does not alter the process of drowning

 C

Can cause delayed death

 D

Can cause secondary drowning

Q. 3

Hyperventilation before drowning :

 A

Can cause death

 B

Does not alter the process of drowning

 C

Can cause delayed death

 D

Can cause secondary drowning

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. Can cause secondary drowning


Q. 4

A typical arrest due to drowning is :

 A

Cardiac arrest due to drowning

 B

Laryngospasm due to drowning

 C

Drowning in unconscious state

 D

All of the above

Q. 4

A typical arrest due to drowning is :

 A

Cardiac arrest due to drowning

 B

Laryngospasm due to drowning

 C

Drowning in unconscious state

 D

All of the above

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. All


Q. 5

Froth of drowning can be differentiated from that due to other causes by :

 A

Microscopic detection of mucous

 B

Detecting excess of salt in the froth

 C

Both a and b

 D

None of the above

Q. 5

Froth of drowning can be differentiated from that due to other causes by :

 A

Microscopic detection of mucous

 B

Detecting excess of salt in the froth

 C

Both a and b

 D

None of the above

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. None


Q. 6

Suicidal drowning differs from homicidal drowning by the following except :

 A

Absence of signs of struggle

 B

Marks of violence on body absent

 C

Untorn cloths

 D

None of the above

Q. 6

Suicidal drowning differs from homicidal drowning by the following except :

 A

Absence of signs of struggle

 B

Marks of violence on body absent

 C

Untorn cloths

 D

None of the above

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. None


Q. 7

Accidental drowning is ruled out if :

 A

The body is tied up inside a gunny bag

 B

Hand and feet are tied by a ligature in way that is inconsistent with suicidal drowning

 C

Heavy weight are attached in such a way that suicide drowning is excluded

 D

All of the above

Q. 7

Accidental drowning is ruled out if :

 A

The body is tied up inside a gunny bag

 B

Hand and feet are tied by a ligature in way that is inconsistent with suicidal drowning

 C

Heavy weight are attached in such a way that suicide drowning is excluded

 D

All of the above

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. All

Accidental (>suicidal) is the most common type of drowningQ

In suicidal drowning body should be free from marks of any injury indicating an assault or struggle (violence)e. In cases of women the body is usually fully dressed and clothes are tied in such a manner that their private parts are not exposed. Sometimes a determined suicide may tie his legs & hands together or attach weights to his body, take poison, or cut throat before immersion. However, it should be examined whether tie could have been made by person himself.

– If the body is found with heavy weights attached to it or hand & legs tied with rope, it must be either homicide or suicide and with children homicide alone.

Homicidal drowning is very rare except in infants & children. Mark of severe violence applied to head, strangulation, throttling, or bruises are strongly presumptive of homicide.

Post mortel injuries by fishes, crabs, frogs etc. lack signs of vital reaction.


Q. 8

Causes of death in drowning are all except :

March 2009

 A

Vagal hyperactivity

 B

Asphyxia

>

 C

Ventricular fibrillation

 D

Laryngospasm

Q. 8

Causes of death in drowning are all except :

March 2009

 A

Vagal hyperactivity

 B

Asphyxia

 C

Ventricular fibrillation

 D

Laryngospasm

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. A: Vagal hyperactivity

Causes of death in drowning:

  • Asphyxia
  • Ventricular fibrillation/ if an examination of the larynx reveals that a spasm occurred, the victim may have died from sudden exposure to the cold, which caused an immediate heart attack.
  • Laryngeal spasm
  • Vagal inhibition
  • Exhaustion
  • Injuries
  • In some cases, hypothermia may have been the cause of death rather than drowning.

Bodies discovered in the water are examined to see whether water is actually present in the airway and stomach of the victim and if the lungs have swollen up. If such signs are apparent, then the victim did actually die due to drowning. Further examination of the corpse will reveal if bleeding occurred in the lungs, suggesting that there was a struggle for breath during the drowning.


Q. 9

NOT true about fresh water drowning:

Kerala 09; KCET 13

 A

Hyperkalemia

 B

Hypovolemia

 C

Ventricular fibrillation

 D

Hemolysis

Q. 9

NOT true about fresh water drowning:

Kerala 09; KCET 13

 A

Hyperkalemia

 B

Hypovolemia

 C

Ventricular fibrillation

 D

Hemolysis

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. Hypovolemia


Q. 10

In case of drowning in sea water:  

TN 06

 A

Hemoglobin increases

 B

Hemoglobin decreases

 C

No change

 D

Either may occur

Q. 10

In case of drowning in sea water:  

TN 06

 A

Hemoglobin increases

 B

Hemoglobin decreases

 C

No change

 D

Either may occur

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. Hemoglobin increases


Q. 11

NOT seen in salt water drowning:        

Maharashtra 11

 A

Hyperkalemia

 B

Progressive hypovolemia

 C

Circulatory collapse

 D

Acute pulmonary edema

Q. 11

NOT seen in salt water drowning:        

Maharashtra 11

 A

Hyperkalemia

 B

Progressive hypovolemia

 C

Circulatory collapse

 D

Acute pulmonary edema

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. Hyperkalemia


Q. 12

In dry drowning:

FMGE 09; AP 11

 A

Death occurs in few days of submersion episode

 B

Death occurs due to sudden immersion in cold water

 C

Water does not enter lungs because of laryngeal spasm

 D

Seen in alcoholics due to drowning in shallow pool

Q. 12

In dry drowning:

FMGE 09; AP 11

 A

Death occurs in few days of submersion episode

 B

Death occurs due to sudden immersion in cold water

 C

Water does not enter lungs because of laryngeal spasm

 D

Seen in alcoholics due to drowning in shallow pool

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. Water does not enter lungs because of laryngeal spasm


Q. 13

Cause of death for drowning in cold water:

NEET 13

 A

Vagal inhibition

 B

Asphyxia

 C

Loss of consciousness

 D

Ventricular fibrillation

Q. 13

Cause of death for drowning in cold water:

NEET 13

 A

Vagal inhibition

 B

Asphyxia

 C

Loss of consciousness

 D

Ventricular fibrillation

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. Vagal inhibition


Q. 14

What of the following is seen in fresh water drowning ‑

 A

Hypovolemia

 B

Hemoconcentration

 C

Hyperkalemia

 D

Hypernatremia

Q. 14

What of the following is seen in fresh water drowning ‑

 A

Hypovolemia

 B

Hemoconcentration

 C

Hyperkalemia

 D

Hypernatremia

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e. Hyperkalemia


Q. 15

Most common drowning in India-

 A

Suicidal

 B

Homicidal

 C

Accidental

 D

Infanticide

Q. 15

Most common drowning in India-

 A

Suicidal

 B

Homicidal

 C

Accidental

 D

Infanticide

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Accidental

  • Most of the cases of drowning (2/3) in India are accidental. Rest 1/3 being suicidal. Homicidal drowning is less common in india.
  • Suicidal drowning is indicated by absence of signs of struggle or assault (e.g. torn clothes, injury marks). A determined suicide may tie his hands and legs together or attach weights to his body or take poison or cut throat before immersion.
  • In homicidal drowning, there are signs of struggle and violence (assault) (e.g. head injury, signs of strangulation, or throttling). Head and feet may be tied, heavy weight may be attached to body or body may be tied up inside a gunny bag. Homicidal drowning is very rare except in infants and children.
  • Accidental drowning is quite common and usually seen in children, non-swimmers, during floods or due to fall in well etc.


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