Genitourinary Embryology

GENITOURINARY EMBRYOLOGY

Q. 1

Cystic fibrosis affects all systems EXCEPT:

 A Respiratory
 B

Endocrine

 C Hepatobiliary
 D

Genitourinary

Q. 1

Cystic fibrosis affects all systems EXCEPT:

 A Respiratory
 B

Endocrine

 C Hepatobiliary
 D

Genitourinary

Ans. B

Explanation:

Endocrine REF: Harrison’s Internal Medicine, Chapter 253, Davidson’s internal medicine 20th edition page-685

FEATURES OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS:

  • A- Autosomal recessive
  • B- Bronchiectasis
  • C- Chloride channel block/Ciliary dysfunction
  • D- Diabetes mellitus
  • E- Exocrine pancreatic failure (> 90% of patients with CF)
  • F- Fat malabsorption (steatorrhoea)
  • G- Gall stone/Gene mutation on chromosome 7
  • H- Hepatic cirrhosis/Hemoptysis
  • I- Intestinal obstruction/Infertility

Q. 2

The patient with oro-cutaneous hamartomatous tumours, gastrointestinal polyps, abnormalities of the breast, thyroid gland and genitourinary system is suffering from which of the following?

 A

Familial adenomatous polyposis

 B

Cowden’s syndrome

 C

Peutz Jeghers’ syndrome

 D

Juvenile polyposis

Q. 2

The patient with oro-cutaneous hamartomatous tumours, gastrointestinal polyps, abnormalities of the breast, thyroid gland and genitourinary system is suffering from which of the following?

 A

Familial adenomatous polyposis

 B

Cowden’s syndrome

 C

Peutz Jeghers’ syndrome

 D

Juvenile polyposis

Ans. B

Explanation:

Cowden’s syndrome or multiple hamartoma syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by orocutaneous hamartomatous tumours, gastrointestinal polyps, abnormalities of the breast, thyroid gland and genitourinary system. The gastrointestinal polyps are generally benign and malignant transformation is seen very rarely.

Ref: Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th Edition, Page 3384

 


Q. 3

All of the following are components of sphincter of the lower genitourinary tract in females, EXCEPT:

 A

Bulbospongiosus

 B

External urethral sphincter

 C

Internal urethral sphincter

 D

Pubovaginalis

Q. 3

All of the following are components of sphincter of the lower genitourinary tract in females, EXCEPT:

 A

Bulbospongiosus

 B

External urethral sphincter

 C

Internal urethral sphincter

 D

Pubovaginalis

Ans. C

Explanation:

Muscles compress the vagina and act like sphincters: pubovaginalis, external urethral sphincter (especially its urethrovaginal sphincter part), and bulbospongiosus.
The internal urethral sphincter, which is formed from the detrusor muscle, is the upper and involuntary sphincter.


Q. 4

The most common anomaly seen in the fetus of a mother taking lithum carbonate is –

 A

Cardiac deformities

 B

Neural tube defect

 C

Limb reduction

 D

Genitourinary de formi ties

Q. 4

The most common anomaly seen in the fetus of a mother taking lithum carbonate is –

 A

Cardiac deformities

 B

Neural tube defect

 C

Limb reduction

 D

Genitourinary de formi ties

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Cardiac deformities

o It causes Ebstein anomaly.


Q. 5

Malformations of the following organ system of the fetus are found to be most commonly associated with single umbilical artery –

 A

Central nervous system

 B

Cardiovascular

 C

Genitourinary

 D

Skeletal

Q. 5

Malformations of the following organ system of the fetus are found to be most commonly associated with single umbilical artery –

 A

Central nervous system

 B

Cardiovascular

 C

Genitourinary

 D

Skeletal

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Genitourinary


Q. 6

In Genitourinary TB, True is –

 A

Sterile pyuria is consistent finding

 B

AFB in early morning sample is always positive

 C

MC site is pelvis

 D

Commonest cause of pyelonephritis

Q. 6

In Genitourinary TB, True is –

 A

Sterile pyuria is consistent finding

 B

AFB in early morning sample is always positive

 C

MC site is pelvis

 D

Commonest cause of pyelonephritis

Ans. A

Explanation:

Answer is ‘a’ i.e. Sterile pyuria is consistent finding

“Sterile pyuria is the rule” – CSDT 13/e p928

But about 15-20% of patients with tuberculosis have secondary pyogenic infection, obscuring the clue – sterile pyuria.

  • The tubercle bacilli can be identified on AFB staining of 24 hr urine specimen or the first morning urine sample collected on 3 successive days.” AFB staining is positive in about 60% of cases – Smith’ Urology
  • Most common site of genitourinary tuberculosis is – kidney
  • Commonest cause of pyelonephritis is —> E. coli

Q. 7

Most common site of genitourinary tuberculosis:

 A

Kidney

 B

Ureter

 C

Bladder

 D

Urethra

Q. 7

Most common site of genitourinary tuberculosis:

 A

Kidney

 B

Ureter

 C

Bladder

 D

Urethra

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans is `a’ i.e. Kidney 

“The kidney and possibly the prostate are the primary sites of tuberculous infection in the genitourinary tract. All other genitourinary organs become involved by either ascent (prostate to bladder) or descent (kidney to bladder, prostate to epididymis).” – Smith’s Urology

Also Know:

Pyuria without bacteriuria (or sterile pyuria) is associated with genitourinary tuberculosis


Q. 8

Which of the following systems is least likely to be affected in cystic fibrosis

 A

Respiratory

 B

Genitourinary

 C

Hepatobiliary

 D

Endocrine

Q. 8

Which of the following systems is least likely to be affected in cystic fibrosis

 A

Respiratory

 B

Genitourinary

 C

Hepatobiliary

 D

Endocrine

Ans. D

Explanation:

Answer is D (Endocrine):

Cystic fibrosis is typically charachterized by Exocrine Pancreatic insufficiency. Endocrine Pancreatic insufficiency is not seen as a tyical manifestation of cystic fibrosis.

Charachteristic Classical Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis (Typical System Involvement)

Respiratory system (Sinopulmonary disease)

  • Pulmonary infection
  • Persistant colonization/infection with typical cystic fibrosis pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, nontypeable, Hemophilus influenzae, mucoid and nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepase
  • Chronic obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • Bronchiectasis is typical
  • Airway obstruction manifested by wheezing and air trapping
  • Chronic cough & sputum production
  • Digital clubbing
  • Persistent chest radiograph abnormalities (eg. Bronchiectasis, atelectasis, infiltrates, hyperinflation)
  • Nasal Polyps radiographic or computed tomographic abnormalities of paranasal sinuses

Gastrointestinal System (Intestinal; Hepatobiliary; Pancreatic)

Intestinal meconium ileus, distal intestinal obstruction syndrome, rectal prolapse.

Pancreatic

Pancreatic exocrine deficiency

Hepatobiliary

Hepatic disease manifested by clinical or histologic evidence of focal biliary cirrhosis, or multilobular cirrhosis

Nutritional

Failure to thrive (protein-calorie malnutrition), hypoproteinemia, edema, complications secondary to fat-soluble vitamin deficiency

Genitourinary System

(Male Infertility)  Male urogenital abnormalites resulting in obstructive azoospermia are typical

Metabolic Abnormalities are typically charachterized by salt depletion syndrome, (Hyponatremia, Hypocholeremia and Hypokalemic Metabolic Alkalosis)


Q. 9

Borax is:           

NEET 13

 A

Gastrointestinal irritants

 B

Genitourinary irritants

 C

Ecbolics

 D

Emmenagogues

Q. 9

Borax is:           

NEET 13

 A

Gastrointestinal irritants

 B

Genitourinary irritants

 C

Ecbolics

 D

Emmenagogues

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. Emmenagogues


Q. 10

Larvae of Ascaris lumbricoidis most commonly causes‑

 A

Cardiac symptoms

 B

Respiratory symptoms

 C

Genitourinary symptoms

 D

Cerebral symptoms

Q. 10

Larvae of Ascaris lumbricoidis most commonly causes‑

 A

Cardiac symptoms

 B

Respiratory symptoms

 C

Genitourinary symptoms

 D

Cerebral symptoms

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Respiratory symptoms

Clinical manifestations of ascariasis can be divided into two groups :-

Due to adult worm : Adult worm causes malnutrition, abdominal pain, anorexia, intestinal obstruction, appendicitis, obstructive jaundice, pancreatitis, intestinal perforation and allergic manifestations. in Due to migrating larva : Loeffler’s syndrome (eosinophilic pneumonia).


Q. 11

The condition shown in the picture below is most commonly related to ? 

 A

Genitourinary TB.

 B

Cystitis.

 C

BPH.

 D

Malignancy.

Q. 11

The condition shown in the picture below is most commonly related to ? 

 A

Genitourinary TB.

 B

Cystitis.

 C

BPH.

 D

Malignancy.

Ans. A

Explanation:

The condition shown in the picture above represents pipe stem ureter.

Pipe stem ureter appearance is seen in patients with Genitourinary TB.


Q. 12

Most common site of extra – pulmonary TB in children is ‑

 A

Abdominal

 B

Genitourinary

 C

Lymphnode

 D

Congenital

Q. 12

Most common site of extra – pulmonary TB in children is ‑

 A

Abdominal

 B

Genitourinary

 C

Lymphnode

 D

Congenital

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Lymphnode

  • Most common site of extra pulmonary TB is lymphnode
  • Most children who develop tuberculosis disease experience pulmonary manifestations 25 to 35 percent of children have an extrapulmonary presentation.
  • The most common extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis is lymphatic disease accounting for about two thirds of cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. the second most common form is meningeal disease occurring in 13% of patients

Q. 13

Earliest system to be function in fetus is ‑

 A

CNS

 B

GIT

 C

Circulatory

 D

Genitourinary

Q. 13

Earliest system to be function in fetus is ‑

 A

CNS

 B

GIT

 C

Circulatory

 D

Genitourinary

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Circulatory 

  • Fetal period extends from the beginning of 3rd month to the end of intrauterine life (till birth).
  • It is the period of maturation of tissues and organ and rapid growth of body occurs. 
  • By the end of organogenesis (end of embryonic period) most of the organ systems are developed, however, the function of most of them is negligible except cardiovascular system (cardiovascular system is first to function).


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