Hepatitis A Virus

Hepatitis A Virus

Q. 1

Incubation period of Hepatitis A is:          

March 2013

 A

2-4 weeks

 B

4-6 weeks

 C

6-8 weeks

 D

8-10 weeks

Q. 1

Incubation period of Hepatitis A is:          

March 2013

 A

2-4 weeks

 B

4-6 weeks

 C

6-8 weeks

 D

8-10 weeks

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. A i.e. 2-4 weeks

Hepatitis A

  • It is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus.
  • The virus is primarily spread when an uninfected (and unvaccinated) person ingests food or water that is contaminated with the faeces of an infected person.
  • The disease is closely associated with a lack of safe water, inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene.
  • Unlike hepatitis B and C, hepatitis A infection does not cause chronic liver disease and is rarely fatal
  • It can cause debilitating symptoms and fulminant hepatitis (acute liver failure), which is associated with high mortality.
  • The incubation period of hepatitis A is usually 14-28 days.

Q. 2

Hepatitis which spreads by feco-oral route is:

September 2007

 A

Hepatitis A

 B

Hepatitis B

 C

Hepatitis C

 D

Hepatitis D

Q. 2

Hepatitis which spreads by feco-oral route is:

September 2007

 A

Hepatitis A

 B

Hepatitis B

 C

Hepatitis C

 D

Hepatitis D

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. A: Hepatitis A

Feco-oral route is the typical mode of transmission for the infectious agents of:

  • Cholera
  • Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E
  • Polio
  • Rotavirus
  • Salmonella

Q. 3

Best test to diagnose prodrome of Hepatitis A ‑

 A

HAV in blood

 B

IgG anti-HAV

 C

IgM anti-HAV

 D

HAV in stool

Q. 3

Best test to diagnose prodrome of Hepatitis A ‑

 A

HAV in blood

 B

IgG anti-HAV

 C

IgM anti-HAV

 D

HAV in stool

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., IgM anti-HAV

Lab diagnosis of HAV

  • “Detection of IgM – specific anti-HAV in the blood of an acutely infected patient confirms the diagnosis of hepatitis A”.
  • IgM appears in acute phase, peaking about 2 weeks after elevation of liver enzymes and becomes undetectable within 3-6 months.
  • ELISA is the method of choice for measuring antibodies.
  • Diagnosis can also be established by detection of virus in the stool from about 2 weeks prior to the onset of jaundice up to 2 weeks after. “But these tests for detection of HAV, are not widely available or useful in practice”.

Q. 4

Hepatitis A vaccine available ‑

 A

Live attenuated

 B

Killed (Inactivated)

 C

Both live and inactivated

 D

Subunit vaccine

Q. 4

Hepatitis A vaccine available ‑

 A

Live attenuated

 B

Killed (Inactivated)

 C

Both live and inactivated

 D

Subunit vaccine

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Both live and inactivated

Two types of hepatitis A vaccines are used :-

  1. Formaldehyde inactivated vaccine
  2. Live attenuated vaccine

Q. 5

An american wants prophylaxis for Hepatitis-A before coming to India for 10 days. What should be given ‑

 A

Two dose of HAV vaccine

 B

immunoglobulin

 C

Antiviral drug prophylaxis

 D

Nothing is required

Q. 5

An american wants prophylaxis for Hepatitis-A before coming to India for 10 days. What should be given ‑

 A

Two dose of HAV vaccine

 B

immunoglobulin

 C

Antiviral drug prophylaxis

 D

Nothing is required

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Immunoglobulin

Advice for travellers

Some of the recommendation pertain to the following :‑

  1. Avoid bathing with polluted water as this may result in ear, eye and skin infections. Excessive heat and humidity or over-exertion in these conditions may lead to exhaustion from loss of water and salt.
  2. The measures for prevention of insect bites.
  3. Diarrhoeal Diseases : “Be careful what you eat” is common advice to travellers, but very few truely understand its implications. Diarrhoea affects an estimated 20-50 per cent of all travellers. Contaminated food drinks are the most common source of these infections. Careful selection and preparation of food and drink offer the best protection. Unfortunately appearance of food is no guide as to its safety. The main personal proection is to consider unpasteurized milk, non-bottled drinks, uncooked food (apart from the fruits and vegetables that can be peeled or shelled), as likely to be contaminated and therefore unsafe. The food should be throughly and freshly cooked. Use boiled water or bottled mineral water (now available everywhere). Travellers should be aware of the importance of oral rehydration fluids containing salt and glucose for countering dehydration.
  4. Malaria : There is a high risk of acquiring malaria in endemic areas. Travellers are advised to protect themselves by chemoprophylaxis. Drug prophylaxis should begin at the latest on the day of arrival in the malarious areas and continued for 4-6 weeks after leaving the malarious areas.
  5. Hepatitis A : Normal human immunoglobulin in a dose of 0.02-0.05 mg/kg of body weight has been recommended every 4 months. Ideally immunoglobulin should not be given within 3 weeks before, or untill 2 weeks after administration of a live vaccine. A highly safe, inactivated HAV vaccine is available in several European countries.
  6. Hepatitis E : There is no vaccine against hepatitis E and immunoglobulin prepared in Europe and USA does not give much of protection. Avoidence of contaminated food and water is the only effective protective measure.
  7. Hepatitis B : Hepatitis B vaccines are available and are safe. Three doses of vaccine constitute the complete course. The first two doses are given one month apart and the third dose about 6 months later.
  8. STD and HIV : Measures for preventing STD are the same whether the individual is travelling abroad or not, i.e. avoidance of sex altogether or limit it to a single faithful, uninfected partner. Use of condom is an important preventive measure. To reduce the risk of acquiring HIV and hepatitis B from syringes and needles, travellers should avoid injectable drugs and if an injection is essential they should make sure that the needle and syringe come from sterile pack.
  9. Yellow fever : Vaccination certificate for yellow fever is the only certificate required for international travel. Yellow fever vaccine is recommended for travellers to countires designated as yellow fever endemic zone.
  10. Tetanus : It is a wise precaution for the traveller to have a booster dose of tetanus toxoid if 10 years or more have elapsed since the last injection of a complete course or booster.

Q. 6

Hepatitis A vaccine scheudule – True is ‑

 A

Recomended at age of 12 months

 B

2 dose of killed vaccine 6 months apart

 C

1 dose of live vaccine

 D

All are true

Q. 6

Hepatitis A vaccine scheudule – True is ‑

 A

Recomended at age of 12 months

 B

2 dose of killed vaccine 6 months apart

 C

1 dose of live vaccine

 D

All are true

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d’ i.e., All are true

Hepatitis A (HepA) vaccines

  • Routine vaccination:
  • Minimum age: 12 months
  • Killed HepA vaccine(available in India): Start the 2-dose HepA vaccine series for children aged 12 through 23 months; separate the 2 doses by 6 months.
  • Live attenuated H2-strain Hepatitis A vaccine: Single dose starting at 12 months and through 23 months of age


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