Memory

MEMORY

Q. 1

Hippocampus lesion:

 A Affects memory transformation from short term to long term 
 B

Affects remote memory

 C

Affects implicit memory

 D

Affects working memory

Q. 1

Hippocampus lesion:

 A Affects memory transformation from short term to long term 
 B

Affects remote memory

 C

Affects implicit memory

 D

Affects working memory

Ans. A

Explanation:

Affects memory transformation from short term to long term REF: Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology 22″d ed chapter 15

Working memory areas are connected to the hippocampus and the adjacent parahippocampal portions of the medial temporal cortex. In humans, bilateral destruction of the ventral hippocampus, or Alzheimer’s disease and similar disease processes that destroy its CAl neurons, cause striking defects in short-term memory. So do bilateral lesions of the same area in monkeys.

Humans with such destruction have intact working memory and remote memory. Their implicit memory processes are generally intact. They perform adequately in terms of conscious memory as long as they concentrate on what they are doing. However, if they are distracted for even a very short period, all memory of what they were doing and what they proposed to do is lost. They are thus capable of new learning and retain old prelesion memories, but they cannot form new long-term memories.


Q. 2

Which area is involved for the memory deficit in posterior cerebral artery embolism?

 A

Pre frontal cortex

 B

Hippocarpal gyrus

 C

Angular gyrus

 D

Superior temporal gyrus

Q. 2

Which area is involved for the memory deficit in posterior cerebral artery embolism?

 A

Pre frontal cortex

 B

Hippocarpal gyrus

 C

Angular gyrus

 D

Superior temporal gyrus

Ans. B

Explanation:

Memory deficit is present only if dominant hemisphere is involved. The most common long-term sequelae of PCA strokes are visual and sensory deficits. Infarction of the medial temporal lobe, fornices, or medial thalamic nuclei may result in permanent anterograde amnesia. Lesions of the lingual gyrus in the inferior occipital lobe may produce disorders of color perception. Pure alexia may result from infarction of the dominant occipital cortex. Prosopagnosia refers to an inability to recognize faces. Typically, this deficit results from bilateral lesions of the lingual and fusiform gyri.

The major posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke syndromes (many of which occur concomitantly) include the following:

  • Paramedian thalamic infarction
  • Visual field loss
  • Visual agnosia
  • Balint syndrome
  • Prosopagnosia
  • Palinopsia, micropsia, and macropsia
  • Disorders of reading
  • Disorders of color vision
  • Memory impairment
  • Motor dysfunction


Q. 3

A patient developed memory deficit for recent events. Anterograde amnesia is a feature of:

 A

Post-head injury

 B

Stroke

 C

Spinal cord injury

 D

Traumatic paraplegia

Q. 3

A patient developed memory deficit for recent events. Anterograde amnesia is a feature of:

 A

Post-head injury

 B

Stroke

 C

Spinal cord injury

 D

Traumatic paraplegia

Ans. A

Explanation:

Patients seen shortly after head injury exhibit a confusional state in which they are unable to incorporate new memories, is known as anterograde, or posttraumatic amnesia. They may behave in an apparently normal automatic fashion.

Also know:
 
The retrograde amnesia involves an inability to recall experiences that occurred before the onset of the amnestic state.
 
Ref: Greenberg D.A., Aminoff M.J., Simon R.P. (2012). Chapter 5. Dementia & Amnestic Disorders. In D.A. Greenberg, M.J. Aminoff, R.P. Simon (Eds),Clinical Neurology, 8e.

Q. 4

Which of the following is the short-term memory that keeps information available for very short periods of time?

 A

Recent memory

 B

Remote memory

 C

Working memory

 D

Delayed memory

Q. 4

Which of the following is the short-term memory that keeps information available for very short periods of time?

 A

Recent memory

 B

Remote memory

 C

Working memory

 D

Delayed memory

Ans. C

Explanation:

Working memory is a form of short-term memory that keeps information available, usually for very short periods, while the individual plans action based on it. Working memory areas are connected to the hippocampus and the adjacent parahippocampal portions of the medial temporal cortex.

 
Ref: Barrett K.E., Barman S.M., Boitano S., Brooks H.L. (2012). Chapter 15. Learning, Memory, Language, & Speech. In K.E. Barrett, S.M. Barman, S. Boitano, H.L. Brooks (Eds), Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology, 24e.

 

 


Q. 5

All are true except :

 A

Probabilistic learning is from past experiences

 B

Implicit learning is procedural skill acquirement

 C

Amnestic syndromes lose semantic memory

 D

All

Q. 5

All are true except :

 A

Probabilistic learning is from past experiences

 B

Implicit learning is procedural skill acquirement

 C

Amnestic syndromes lose semantic memory

 D

All

Ans. C

Explanation:

C. i.e. Amnestic syndromes lose semantic memory 


Q. 6

The processing of short term memory to long term memory is done in:

 A

Prefrontal cortex

 B

Hippocampus

 C

Neocortex

 D

Amygdala

Q. 6

The processing of short term memory to long term memory is done in:

 A

Prefrontal cortex

 B

Hippocampus

 C

Neocortex

 D

Amygdala

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. Hippocampus


Q. 7

All are true statement regarding memory except

 A

Structural changes occur in synapses during the development of long-term memory

 B

Short term memory last as long as the person continues to think

 C

The site for storage of long term memory is in temporal lobe

 D

Bilateral loss of hippocampal function leads to loss of the ability to encode events of the recent past in long term memory

Q. 7

All are true statement regarding memory except

 A

Structural changes occur in synapses during the development of long-term memory

 B

Short term memory last as long as the person continues to think

 C

The site for storage of long term memory is in temporal lobe

 D

Bilateral loss of hippocampal function leads to loss of the ability to encode events of the recent past in long term memory

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. The site for storage of long term memory is in temporal lobe

–              Mechanism of learning and long term memory include gene activation leading to tprotein synthesis & spatial reorganization (restructuring) of synapse changing their sensitivity by increasing the number of transmitter vesicles / vesicle release sites / level of neurotransmitter at synapse / presynaptic terminals as well as changes in dendritic spine that permit transmission of stronger signals. Change in number of neuron & their connectivity is significant in initial week / month / years of life but this recruitment of neurons is from already existing pool (not by multiplication) mainlyQ

Hippocampus (in medial temporal lobe) is the site where short term memory is processed and converted into long term memoryQ. While the encoding process for short term explicit memory involves hippocampus, long term memories are stored in various parts of neocortexQ.

Short term memory lasts as long as the person continues to think. Intermediate memory results from temporary changes in synapses, whereas structural changes occur in synapses during development of long term memory.


Q. 8

Hippocampus lesion affects:

 A

Implicit memory

 B

Procedural memory

 C

Non-declarative memory

 D

Explicit memory

Q. 8

Hippocampus lesion affects:

 A

Implicit memory

 B

Procedural memory

 C

Non-declarative memory

 D

Explicit memory

Ans. D

Explanation:

Answer is D (Explicit memory):

Hippocampal lesions primarily affect Declarative or Explicit memory.

The Hippocampus is essential to forming new memories for facts and general information (sementic memory) and also for life experiences (episodic memory). But the hippocampus does not appear to play a role in precedural memory, the kind of memory we draw upon while riding bike or using a tool

Classification of Memory Based on Anatomy of Temporal Lobe system (Hippocampus)

Declarative Memory or Explicit Memory (Episodic/Sementic Memory)

  • Declarative memory also known as Explicit memory, is memory of events, places, facts and people and is dependent on the temporal lobe system (Hipppcampus)
  • Declarative memory can be further divided into two classes.

Episodic memory

Sementic memory

Refers to memory of

Refers to memory or facts

episodic events that

that are no longer

contain ‘what”where’

ascribable to any particular

`when’ information

occasion in life

  •  Lesions of the temporal lobe such as hippocampus are known to greatly impair patient’s ability to learn new facts, concepts, vacobulary and knowledge about the world.

Non-Declarative Memory or Implicit Memory (Procedural memory)

  • Non-Declarative memory is also known as procedural memory and does not depend on the structural integrity of the temporal lobe system.
  • Non-Declarative memory encompasses a variety of perceptual motor learning skills and mental operations
  • Currently the brain regions involved in encoding procedural memory are not clear, atleast in humans (striatum may be engaged)



Q. 9

Which of the following is explicit memory-

 A

Procedural

 B

Nondeclaratine

 C

Sementic

 D

Working

Q. 9

Which of the following is explicit memory-

 A

Procedural

 B

Nondeclaratine

 C

Sementic

 D

Working

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Sementic



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