Parotid gland

PAROTID GLAND

Q. 1

Secretomotor fiber to parotid salivary gland is supplied by?

 A Otic ganglion
 B

Pterygoid ganglion

 C Submandibular ganglion
 D

Hypoglossal ganglion

Q. 1

Secretomotor fiber to parotid salivary gland is supplied by?

 A Otic ganglion
 B

Pterygoid ganglion

 C Submandibular ganglion
 D

Hypoglossal ganglion

Ans. A

Explanation:

Otic ganglion REF: Gray’s anatomy 39′ ed p. 237

The glossopharyngeal nerve contains preganglionic parasympathetic secretomotor fibers for the parotid gland. These originate in the inferior salivatory nucleus and travel in the glossopharyngeal nerve and its tympanic branch. They traverse the tympanic plexus and lesser petrosal nerve to reach the otic ganglion where they synapse. Postganglionic fibers pass by communicating branches to the auriculotemporal nerve, which conveys them to the parotid gland. Stimulation of the lesser petrosal nerve produces vasodilator and secretomotor effects.


Q. 2

The arrangement of Branches of Facial nerve after exiting from Parotid gland is given the name as

 A

Pes Cavus

 B

Panniculosus carnosus

 C

Pes Anserinus

 D

Genu

Q. 2

The arrangement of Branches of Facial nerve after exiting from Parotid gland is given the name as

 A

Pes Cavus

 B

Panniculosus carnosus

 C

Pes Anserinus

 D

Genu

Ans. C

Explanation:

Q. 3

Buccinator muscle is pierced by:

 A

Facial nerve

 B

Whartons duct

 C

Parotid duct

 D

Trigeminal nerve

Q. 3

Buccinator muscle is pierced by:

 A

Facial nerve

 B

Whartons duct

 C

Parotid duct

 D

Trigeminal nerve

Ans. C

Explanation:

Parotid duct


Q. 4

All of the following glands are supplied by the facial nerve, EXCEPT?

 A

Nasal glands

 B

Lacrimal gland

 C

Parotid gland

 D

Submandibular gland

Q. 4

All of the following glands are supplied by the facial nerve, EXCEPT?

 A

Nasal glands

 B

Lacrimal gland

 C

Parotid gland

 D

Submandibular gland

Ans. C

Explanation:

Parotid glandreceives parasympathetic innervations from glossopharyngeal nerve and not facial nerve.


Q. 5

The parasympathetic secretomotor fibres to parotid traverse through all of the following, EXCEPT?

 A

Otic ganglion

 B

Tympanic plexus

 C

Auriculo temporal nerve

 D

Greater Petrosal nerve

Q. 5

The parasympathetic secretomotor fibres to parotid traverse through all of the following, EXCEPT?

 A

Otic ganglion

 B

Tympanic plexus

 C

Auriculo temporal nerve

 D

Greater Petrosal nerve

Ans. D

Explanation:

The parasympathetic secretomotor fibres to parotid arises from the glossopharyngeal nerve. The nerve reaches the gland via tympanic branch, the lesser petrosal nerve, the otic ganglion and the auriculotemporal nerve.

 Course of the nerve:
  • Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers originate from inferior salivary nucleus in the medulla oblongata and are carried in the glossopharyngeal nerve.
  • These fibers leave the glossopharyngeal nerve in its tympanic branch, which enters the middle ear. Here it breaks into tympanic plexus which gives origin to lesser petrosal nerve. This nerve enters the middle cranial fossa from where it enters infratemporal fossa to terminate in otic ganglion. 
  • Postganglionic fibres join the auriculotemporal nerve which provide secretomotor fibers to parotid gland.

Q. 6

All of the following are supplied by facial nerve, EXCEPT?

 A

Lacrimal gland

 B

Submandibular gland

 C

Sublingual glands

 D

Parotid gland

Q. 6

All of the following are supplied by facial nerve, EXCEPT?

 A

Lacrimal gland

 B

Submandibular gland

 C

Sublingual glands

 D

Parotid gland

Ans. D

Explanation:

Facial nerve supplies the muscles of facial expression, supplies the anterior two third of the tongue with taste fibres and is secretomotor to the lacrimal, submandibular and sublingual.

Secretomotor fibres to the parotid gland is supplied by glossopharyngeal nerve.


Q. 7

TRUE/FALSE statements about otic ganglion is/are:

1. Lesser petrosal nerve forms parasympathetic root
2. Secretomotor to parotid gland
3. Topographically connected to maxillary division of trigeminal nerve
4. Nerve to medial pterygoid connected to the ganglion
5. Sympathetic root is derived from plexus around internal carotid artery
 
 A

1,2,3 true & 4,5 false

 B

1,2,4 true & 3,5 false

 C

1,3,4 true & 2,5 false

 D

All are false

Q. 7

TRUE/FALSE statements about otic ganglion is/are:

1. Lesser petrosal nerve forms parasympathetic root
2. Secretomotor to parotid gland
3. Topographically connected to maxillary division of trigeminal nerve
4. Nerve to medial pterygoid connected to the ganglion
5. Sympathetic root is derived from plexus around internal carotid artery
 
 A

1,2,3 true & 4,5 false

 B

1,2,4 true & 3,5 false

 C

1,3,4 true & 2,5 false

 D

All are false

Ans. B

Explanation:

Otic ganglion is a peripheral parasympathetic ganglion which relays secretomotor fibres to the parotid gland.

  • Topographically it is related to the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, but functionally it is a part of glossopharyngeal nerve.
  • The motor or parasympathetic root is formed by the lesser petrosal nerve. The preganglionic fibres are derived from the inferior salivary nucleus. The postganglionic or secretomotor fibres pass through the auriculotemporal nerve to the parotid gland.
  • The sympathetic root is derived from the plexus around the middle meningeal artery. They are vasomotor in function. Sensory root comes from the auriculotemporal nerve and is sensory to the parotid gland.
  • The nerve to medial pterygoid gives a motor root to the ganglion. Chorda tympani nerve is connected to the otic ganglion.

Q. 8

Parasympathetic nerve supply to parotid salivary gland is by?

 A

Otic ganglion

 B

Lingual nerve

 C

Inferior alveolar nerve

 D

Deep temporal nerve

Q. 8

Parasympathetic nerve supply to parotid salivary gland is by?

 A

Otic ganglion

 B

Lingual nerve

 C

Inferior alveolar nerve

 D

Deep temporal nerve

Ans. A

Explanation:

The parotid gland receives parasympathetic secretomotor innervation from preganglionic fibers that arise in the inferior salivatory nucleus. They travel in the lesser petrosal branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. The lesser petrosal nerve exits the middle cranial fossa through the foramen ovale, where the preganglionic fibers synapse in the otic ganglion.

Must know:
The postganglionic fibers secretomotor fibres travel with the auriculotemporal nerve to supply the parotid gland.

Q. 9

Parotid capsule is derived from?

 A

Superficial cervical fascia

 B

Deep cervical fascia

 C

Both of the above

 D

None of the above

Q. 9

Parotid capsule is derived from?

 A

Superficial cervical fascia

 B

Deep cervical fascia

 C

Both of the above

 D

None of the above

Ans. B

Explanation:

The parotid gland is enclosed within an unyielding parotid capsule, the deep part of which is derived from the investing layer of deep cervical fascia.


Q. 10

Parotid glands are supplied by branches from?

 A

Internal carotid artery

 B

External carotid artery

 C

Both of the above

 D

None of the above

Q. 10

Parotid glands are supplied by branches from?

 A

Internal carotid artery

 B

External carotid artery

 C

Both of the above

 D

None of the above

Ans. B

Explanation:

The arterial supply to the parotid gland is from the external carotid artery and its branches within and near the gland. The veins drain to the external jugular vein via local tributaries.


Q. 11

Postganglionic fibres to parotid gland is supplied by?

 A

Glossopharyngeal nerve

 B

Auriculotemporal nerve

 C

Both of the above

 D

None of the above

Q. 11

Postganglionic fibres to parotid gland is supplied by?

 A

Glossopharyngeal nerve

 B

Auriculotemporal nerve

 C

Both of the above

 D

None of the above

Ans. B

Explanation:

Preganglionic nerves travel in the lesser petrosal branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve and synapse in the otic ganglion. Postganglionic fibres reach the gland via the auriculotemporal nerve.


Q. 12

Secretomotor fiber to parotid salivary gland is supplied by which of the following ganglia?

 A

Otic ganglion

 B

Pterygoid ganglion

 C

Submandibular ganglion

 D

Hypoglossal ganglion

Q. 12

Secretomotor fiber to parotid salivary gland is supplied by which of the following ganglia?

 A

Otic ganglion

 B

Pterygoid ganglion

 C

Submandibular ganglion

 D

Hypoglossal ganglion

Ans. A

Explanation:

 

The glossopharyngeal nerve contains preganglionic parasympathetic secretomotor fibers for the parotid gland. These fibers originate in the inferior salivatory nucleus and travel in the glossopharyngeal nerve and its tympanic branch. They traverse the tympanic plexus and lesser petrosal nerve to reach the otic ganglion where they synapse. Postganglionic fibers pass by communicating branches to the auriculotemporal nerve, which conveys them to the parotid gland. Stimulation of the lesser petrosal nerve produces vasodilator and secretomotor effects.

 


Q. 13

The parotid duct is known as –

 A

Wharton’s duct

 B

Stenson’s duct

 C

Duct of Santorini

 D

Duct of wirsung

Q. 13

The parotid duct is known as –

 A

Wharton’s duct

 B

Stenson’s duct

 C

Duct of Santorini

 D

Duct of wirsung

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Stenson’s duct 

Ducts of salivary glands                                                                                                                                          

•  Parotid gland –>

Stensen’s duct (opens at upper 2nd molar tooth)

•  Submandibular gland –>

Wharton’s duct (opens into the papilla just lateral to the frenulum)

•  Sublingual gland –>

ducts of Rivinus, Bartholin duct(Sublingual gland secretes via tiny openings

(ducts of Rivinus) directly into the floor of mouth or via several ducts which unite

to form the common sublingual duct (Bartholin) which then merges with

Wharton’s duct)


Q. 14

Parotid duct opens:        

 A

Floor of the mouth

 B

Opposite lower second molar tooth

 C

Opposite upper second molar tooth

 D

At epiglottis border

Q. 14

Parotid duct opens:        

 A

Floor of the mouth

 B

Opposite lower second molar tooth

 C

Opposite upper second molar tooth

 D

At epiglottis border

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ducts of salivary glands

  • Duct of submandibular gland opens on the floor of the mouth, on the summit of sublingual papilla, at the side of the frenulum of the tongue
  • About 15 ducts emerge from the sublingual gland. Most of them open directly into the floor of the mouth on the summit of the sublingual fold.

The parotid duct runs forward for a short distance between the buccinator and the oral mucosa. Finally the duct turns medially and opens into the vestibule of the mouth opposite the crown of the upper second molar tooth


Q. 15

Parotid duct passes through all the following structures except

 A

Buccopharyngeal fascia

 B

Buccinator

 C

Buccal fat pad

 D

Masesster

Q. 15

Parotid duct passes through all the following structures except

 A

Buccopharyngeal fascia

 B

Buccinator

 C

Buccal fat pad

 D

Masesster

Ans. D

Explanation:

  • The parotid gland lies in a deep hollow below the external auditory meatus, behind the ramus of the mandible, and in front of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
  • The facial nerve divides the gland into superficial and deep lobes.
  • The parotid duct, or Stenson duct, is about 2 in. (5 cm) long and passes forward across the masseter about a fingerbreadth below the zygomatic arch.
  • It passes through the buccal fat, buccopharyngeal fascia, and buccinator muscle then opens into the vestibule of the mouth next to the maxillary second molar tooth. The buccinator acts as a valve that prevents inflation of the duct during blowing.
  • The submandibular glands are a pair of glands located beneath the lower jaws, superior to the digastric muscles.
  • The secretion produced enters the oral cavity via Wharton’s ducts. Approximately 70% of saliva in the oral cavity is produced by the submandibular glands, even though they are much smaller than the parotid glands.

Q. 16

All of the following structures are within the parotid gland except

 A

Facial artery

 B

Facial nerve

 C

External carotid artery

 D

Retromandibular vein

Q. 16

All of the following structures are within the parotid gland except

 A

Facial artery

 B

Facial nerve

 C

External carotid artery

 D

Retromandibular vein

Ans. A

Explanation:

The first plane is the venous plane and consists of the retromandibular vein and its tributaries and branches

Deep to venous plane is the important nervous plane. The importance of this plane is the presence of the facial (VII) nerve. The facial nerve leaves the skull through the stylomastoid foramen and immediately enters the deep part of the parotid gland where it gives off its branches:

  • Posterior auricular
  • Motor branch to posterior belly of digastric
  • Temporal branch
  • Zygomatic branch
  • Buccal branches
  • Mandibular branch
  • Cervical branch

Deep to the nerves lies the arterial plane which includes terminal parts of the external carotid artery and its branches:

  • External carotid artery
  • Occipital artery
  • Maxillary artery
  • Transverse facial artery
  • Superficial temporal artery

The deepest part of the parotid region is the parotid bed and houses the deep part of the gland which fills the small space between the neck of the condyle of the mandible and the mastoid process. Other structures forming the floor of this space are the:

  • Styloid process
  • Stylohyoid muscle
  • Stylopharyngeus muscle
  • Posterior belly of the digastric muscle

Q. 17

Parotid duct opens opposite to:

 A

Upper 1st molar

 B

Upper 2nd molar

 C

Upper 2nd premolar

 D

Upper 1st premolar

Q. 17

Parotid duct opens opposite to:

 A

Upper 1st molar

 B

Upper 2nd molar

 C

Upper 2nd premolar

 D

Upper 1st premolar

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. B: Upper 2nd molar


Q. 18

Facial nerve does not supply which structure of theface: 

 A

Auricular muscle

 B

Posterior belly of diagastric muscle

 C

Parotid gland

 D

Submandibular gland

Q. 18

Facial nerve does not supply which structure of theface: 

 A

Auricular muscle

 B

Posterior belly of diagastric muscle

 C

Parotid gland

 D

Submandibular gland

Ans. C

Explanation:

 Parotid gland


Q. 19

After removal of the parotid gland, patient is having sweating on cheeks while eating. In this complication seen after parotidectomy, the auriculotemporal nerve which contains parasympathetic secretomotor fibres to parotid gland is fused with which nerve

 A

Glossopharyngeal nerve

 B

Facial nerve

 C

Great auricular nerve

 D

Buccal nerve

Q. 19

After removal of the parotid gland, patient is having sweating on cheeks while eating. In this complication seen after parotidectomy, the auriculotemporal nerve which contains parasympathetic secretomotor fibres to parotid gland is fused with which nerve

 A

Glossopharyngeal nerve

 B

Facial nerve

 C

Great auricular nerve

 D

Buccal nerve

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. a. Glossopharyngeal nerve



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