Plasmodium: Diagnosis

Plasmodium: Diagnosis

Q. 1

True about antigen detection test in diagnosis of plasmodium falciparum are all except ‑

 A

It is an immunochromatographic test

 B

Detection of histidine rich protein 1

 C

Detection of lactate dehydrogenase antigen

 D

Detection of glutamate dehydrogenase antigen

Q. 1

True about antigen detection test in diagnosis of plasmodium falciparum are all except ‑

 A

It is an immunochromatographic test

 B

Detection of histidine rich protein 1

 C

Detection of lactate dehydrogenase antigen

 D

Detection of glutamate dehydrogenase antigen

Ans. B

Explanation:

Detection of histidine rich protein-1 [Ref: Harrison 17111/e p. 1288]

  • The diagnosis of malaria involves identification of malarial parasite or its antigens/products in the blood ?
  • The diagnosis of malaria is confirmed by blood tests and can be divided into microscopic and nonmicroscopic tests.

Q. 2

Stages seen in peripheral smear of falciparum malaria –

 A

Schizonts

 B

Gametocytes

 C

Accole

 D

b and c

Q. 2

Stages seen in peripheral smear of falciparum malaria –

 A

Schizonts

 B

Gametocytes

 C

Accole

 D

b and c

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Gametocytes; ‘c’ i.e., Accole

  • In peripheral smear of falciparum malaria following forms are seen ‑

–         Early ring form

–         Gametocytes

.         Mature trophozoites and schizoint are not found in peripheral blood because schizogony occurs inside the capillary of internal organs (spleen, liver and bone marrow).

.           Rings are aften seen attached along the margin of the red cell, the so called form applique or accole.


Q. 3

In plasmodium falciparum following are seen in blood except –

 A

Schizonts

 B

Mature trophozoite

 C

Mature gametocytes

 D

a and b

Q. 3

In plasmodium falciparum following are seen in blood except –

 A

Schizonts

 B

Mature trophozoite

 C

Mature gametocytes

 D

a and b

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a & b’ i.e., Schizonts & Mature trophozoite

.    Only ring forms (young trophozoites) and gametocytes are seen in peripheral blood not the amoeboid forms (mature trophozoites) or schizonts.


Q. 4

Not seen in the peripheral smear in plasmodium falciparum infection –

 A

Accole

 B

Maurer’s dot

 C

Shuffners dots

 D

All

Q. 4

Not seen in the peripheral smear in plasmodium falciparum infection –

 A

Accole

 B

Maurer’s dot

 C

Shuffners dots

 D

All

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Shuffners dots


Q. 5

Thin blood smear for malaria is used to identify –

 A

Schizont

 B

Gametocyte

 C

Plasmodium parasite

 D

Type of parasite

Q. 5

Thin blood smear for malaria is used to identify –

 A

Schizont

 B

Gametocyte

 C

Plasmodium parasite

 D

Type of parasite

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d’ i.e., Type of parasite

The diagnosis of malaria depends on demonstration of the parasite in the blood.

Two types of blood film are prepared for identification and search of malarial parasite.

The two types of films prepared are: ‑

a)     Thin film

b)     Thick film

It is recommended that both type of films should be prepared on a single microscope slide for the diagnosis of malaria.


Q. 6

Black malarial pigment is seen in:           

September 2009

 A

P.vivax

 B

P.falciparum

 C

P.nialariae

 D

P.ovlae

Q. 6

Black malarial pigment is seen in:           

September 2009

 A

P.vivax

 B

P.falciparum

 C

P.nialariae

 D

P.ovlae

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. B: P.falciparum

In well-stained preparations the nuclei of the parasites are always stained red and the cytoplasm blue. The presence of malaria pigment is very characteristic of the older stages of Plasmodium sp.

P. falciparum often contains a single black dot. P. vivax often contains countless fine golden yellow/brown specks of malaria pigment. In P. ovale and P. malariae the pigment inclusions are many and brownish black.

Countless fine red spots in the red blood cell (Schiiffner’s dots) can be seen in P. vivax and P. ovale (the more mature the parasite, the more dots).

In P. ovale the dots are sometimes called James’s dots.

Sometimes a few flecks can be observed in P. falciparum (Maurer’s dots or clefts).

P. malariae almost never exhibits dots (Ziemann’s dots).

The visibility of these dots depends to a great extent on the acidity (pH) with which the thin slide preparation is stained (slightly alkaline: pH = 8 is best). The acidity is important because blood smears are usually stained for haematological tests with a slightly acid pH.


Q. 7

Diagnosis of falciparum

 A

HRP I

 B

HRP II

 C

HRP III

 D

HRPIV

Q. 7

Diagnosis of falciparum

 A

HRP I

 B

HRP II

 C

HRP III

 D

HRPIV

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., HRP II


Q. 8

Which of the following is true about P. falciparum

 A

James dots are seen

 B

Accole forms are seen

 C

Relapses are frequent

 D

Longest incubation period

Q. 8

Which of the following is true about P. falciparum

 A

James dots are seen

 B

Accole forms are seen

 C

Relapses are frequent

 D

Longest incubation period

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Accole forms are seen

The parasite often attaches itself to the margin or the edge of the host cell, the nucleus and a small part of the cytoplasm remaining almost outside. This is known as form applique or accole.

There is no relapse in P. falciparum.

P. falciparum has minimum incubation period (9-14 days).


Q. 9

Identify the gametocyte form of malaria shown in the photograph below ? 

 A

Plasmodium vivax.

 B

Plasmodium falciparum.

 C

Plasmodium malariae.

 D

Plasmodium ovale.

Q. 9

Identify the gametocyte form of malaria shown in the photograph below ? 

 A

Plasmodium vivax.

 B

Plasmodium falciparum.

 C

Plasmodium malariae.

 D

Plasmodium ovale.

Ans. B

Explanation:

The gametocyte form of malaria shown in the photograph above represents Plasmodium falciparum.

Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite that causes an infectious disease known as malaria. P. falciparum is the most severe strain of the malaria species correlated with almost every malarial death. The other 3 species that cause malaria include: P. vivaxP. ovale, and P. malariae. Humans become infected by a female Anopheles mosquito which, transfers a parasitic vector through its saliva into the blood stream. The parasite then infects the liver and undergoes asexual reproduction followed by insertion into red blood cells where an additional round of replication takes place. P. falciparum changes the surface of an infected red blood cell causing it to adhere to blood vessels, cytoadherence, as well as to other red blood cells. In severe cases this leads to obstructions of microcirculation resulting in dysfunction of many organs. Symptoms depend on severity of infection and can present a range of signs such as flulike symptoms, vomiting diarrhea, shock, kidney failure, coma, and death. Plasmodium falciparum mostly infects children under the age of 5 as well as pregnant women.



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