Rigor mortis

Rigor mortis

Q. 1

Which among the following is the correct order of onset of rigor mortis in a deadbody?

 A

Lower limb —> thorax —> eyelids

 B

Eyelids —> thorax —> lower limb

 C

Thorax —> lower limb —> eyelids

 D

Eyelids —> lower limb —> thorax

Q. 1

Which among the following is the correct order of onset of rigor mortis in a deadbody?

 A

Lower limb —> thorax —> eyelids

 B

Eyelids —> thorax —> lower limb

 C

Thorax —> lower limb —> eyelids

 D

Eyelids —> lower limb —> thorax

Ans. B

Explanation:

According to Nysten’s rule, rigor mortis does not start in all muscles simultaneously.
It appears in involuntary muscles; the myocardium becomes rigid in an hour. It begins in the eyelids, neck and lower jaw and passes upwards to the muscles of the face, and downwards to the muscles of the chest, upper limbs, abdomen and lower limbs and lastly in the fingers and toes.
 
Ref: Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology by KS Narayan Reddy, 27th edition, Page 141.

Q. 2

Rigor mortis is also known as, EXCEPT:

 A

Death stiffening

 B

Cadaveric rigidity

 C

Cadaveric lividity

 D

None of the above

Q. 2

Rigor mortis is also known as, EXCEPT:

 A

Death stiffening

 B

Cadaveric rigidity

 C

Cadaveric lividity

 D

None of the above

Ans. C

Explanation:

Rigor mortis also known as death stiffening or cadaveric rigidity, is a state of stiffening of muscles, sometimes with slight shortening of fibres. Individual cell death takes place in this stage due to lack of oxygen.
 
Cadaveric lividity is the term used for post-mortem hypostasis. It is also called postmortem staining, subcutaneous hypostasis, livor mortis, suggilations, vibices, or darkening of death.
 
Ref: Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology by Narayan Reddy, 27th edition, Page 140.

Q. 3

Rigor mortis in India in summer sets in :

 A

2-3 hrs

 B

18-36 hrs

 C

2-5 days

 D

1 week

Q. 3

Rigor mortis in India in summer sets in :

 A

2-3 hrs

 B

18-36 hrs

 C

2-5 days

 D

1 week

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. 2 – 3 hours

Quiz In Between


Q. 4

Rigor mortis in winter season in Northern India lasts for:

 A

24-48 hr

 B

>24 hr

 C

2-3 days

 D

>3 days

Q. 4

Rigor mortis in winter season in Northern India lasts for:

 A

24-48 hr

 B

>24 hr

 C

2-3 days

 D

>3 days

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. 24 – 48 hours


Q. 5

In rigor mortis muscle :

 A

Stiffens

 B

Shortens

 C

Stiffens and shortens

 D

Stiffens and lengthens

Q. 5

In rigor mortis muscle :

 A

Stiffens

 B

Shortens

 C

Stiffens and shortens

 D

Stiffens and lengthens

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. Stiffens & shorten

In rigor mortis, muscle shorten (contracted) & stiffensQ, and the reaction changes from alkaline to distinctly acidic d/t local formation of lactic acid.


Q. 6

Which of the following simulates Rigor mortis:

 A

Heat stiffening

 B

Cold stiffening

 C

Strychnine

 D

a and b

Q. 6

Which of the following simulates Rigor mortis:

 A

Heat stiffening

 B

Cold stiffening

 C

Strychnine

 D

a and b

Ans. D

Explanation:

A i.e. Heat stiffness; B i.e. Cold stiffness

Quiz In Between


Q. 7

Rigor mortis can be simulated by

 A

Cadaveric spasm

 B

Algor mortis

 C

Adipocere

 D

Livor mortis

Q. 7

Rigor mortis can be simulated by

 A

Cadaveric spasm

 B

Algor mortis

 C

Adipocere

 D

Livor mortis

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Cadaveric spasm


Q. 8

Delayed rigor mortis occurs with which poisoning:

 A

Mercury

 B

Lead

 C

Arsenic

 D

Strychnine

Q. 8

Delayed rigor mortis occurs with which poisoning:

 A

Mercury

 B

Lead

 C

Arsenic

 D

Strychnine

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. Arsenic


Q. 9

Rigor mortis appears last in:             

March 2012

 A

Eyelids

 B

Neck

 C

Lower limb

 D

Toes

Q. 9

Rigor mortis appears last in:             

March 2012

 A

Eyelids

 B

Neck

 C

Lower limb

 D

Toes

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans: D i.e. Toes

Rigor mortis first appears in the involuntary muscles; the myocardium.

It begins in eyelids, neck and lower jaw and passes upwards to the muscle of the face, and downwards to the muscles of the chest, upper limbs, abdomen and lower limbs and lastly in the finger and toes

Quiz In Between


Q. 10

Rigor mortis occurs due to:               

September 2008

 A

Muscle of the body began to relax

 B

Capillo-venous distension in the most dependent body parts

 C

Muscle of the body began to stiffen

 D

Mummification of the body tissues

Q. 10

Rigor mortis occurs due to:               

September 2008

 A

Muscle of the body began to relax

 B

Capillo-venous distension in the most dependent body parts

 C

Muscle of the body began to stiffen

 D

Mummification of the body tissues

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. C: Muscle of the body began to stiffen

A few hours after the death, the joints of the body stiffen and become locked in place. This stiffening is called rigor mortis. Depending on temperature and other conditions, rigor mortis lasts approximately 24- 48 hours in winter and 18-36 hours in summer.

The phenomenon is caused by the skeletal muscles partially contracting. The muscles are unable to relax, so the joints become fixed in place Rigor mortis can be used to help estimate time of death.

The onset of rigor mortis may range from 1-2 hours, depending on factors including temperature (rapid cooling of a body can inhibit rigor mortis, but it occurs upon thawing). Maximum stiffness is reached around 12-24 hours post mortem. It first starts in involuntary muscles (myocardium)

Eyelids, neck and jaw muscles are affected first, with the rigor then spreading to other parts of the body.

The joints are stiff but after some time general tissue decay and leaking of lysosomal intracellular digestive enzymes will cause the muscles to relax.


Q. 11

True about rigor mortis are all, except:          

FMGE 08

 A

Seen immediately after death

 B

It last 18-36 h in summer

 C

It disappears in the sequence as it appears

 D

It last 24-48 h in winter

Q. 11

True about rigor mortis are all, except:          

FMGE 08

 A

Seen immediately after death

 B

It last 18-36 h in summer

 C

It disappears in the sequence as it appears

 D

It last 24-48 h in winter

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. Seen immediately after death


Q. 12

Rigor mortis completely develops in:          

Bihar 10

 A

1-2 h

 B

3-6 h

 C

6-8 h

 D

10-12 h

Q. 12

Rigor mortis completely develops in:          

Bihar 10

 A

1-2 h

 B

3-6 h

 C

6-8 h

 D

10-12 h

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. 10-12 h

Quiz In Between


Q. 13

Rigor mortis starts in:     

UP 08

 A

Eyelids

 B

Heart

 C

Voluntary muscle

 D

Limbs

Q. 13

Rigor mortis starts in:     

UP 08

 A

Eyelids

 B

Heart

 C

Voluntary muscle

 D

Limbs

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. Heart


Q. 14

Rigor mortis occurs first in which voluntary muscle:

Delhi 06, 07; COMEDK 08; SGPGI 11

 A

Muscles of eyelids

 B

Small muscles of hands

 C

Neck muscles

 D

Face muscles

Q. 14

Rigor mortis occurs first in which voluntary muscle:

Delhi 06, 07; COMEDK 08; SGPGI 11

 A

Muscles of eyelids

 B

Small muscles of hands

 C

Neck muscles

 D

Face muscles

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. Muscles of eyelids


Q. 15

Rigor mortis come early in all, except:             

PGI 14

 A

Cholera

 B

Heat stroke

 C

OPC poisoning

 D

Pneumonia

Q. 15

Rigor mortis come early in all, except:             

PGI 14

 A

Cholera

 B

Heat stroke

 C

OPC poisoning

 D

Pneumonia

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. Pneumonia

Quiz In Between


Q. 16

Rigor mortis not seen in:  

AIIMS 13

 A

Fetus < 7 months of age

 B

Full term fetus

 C

Elderly

 D

Anemic person

Q. 16

Rigor mortis not seen in:  

AIIMS 13

 A

Fetus < 7 months of age

 B

Full term fetus

 C

Elderly

 D

Anemic person

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. Fetus < 7 months of age


Q. 17

Rigor mortis is simulated by all, except:         

PGI 06

 A

Cold stiffness

 B

Heat stiffness

 C

Tetanus

 D

Putrefaction

Q. 17

Rigor mortis is simulated by all, except:         

PGI 06

 A

Cold stiffness

 B

Heat stiffness

 C

Tetanus

 D

Putrefaction

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. Tetanus


Q. 18

When group of muscles of dead body were in state of strong contration immediately prior to death and remain so even after death, this is termed as ‑

 A

Gas stiffening

 B

Rigor mortis

 C

Cadaveric spasm

 D

Cold stiffening

Q. 18

When group of muscles of dead body were in state of strong contration immediately prior to death and remain so even after death, this is termed as ‑

 A

Gas stiffening

 B

Rigor mortis

 C

Cadaveric spasm

 D

Cold stiffening

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Cadaveric spasm

Cadaveric spasm (instantaneous rigor) is defined as the condition wherein a group of muscles, which were in contraction or spasm at the time of death, continue to be in spasm even after death, without the stage of primary relaxation.

Quiz In Between


Q. 19

Rigor mortis in fetus at birth can be seen in ‑

 A

Dead born

 B

Still born

 C

Superfoetation

 D

Superfecundation

Q. 19

Rigor mortis in fetus at birth can be seen in ‑

 A

Dead born

 B

Still born

 C

Superfoetation

 D

Superfecundation

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Dead born

Signs of dead born (intrauterine death : IUD) are (i) Rigor mortis at birth, (ii) Maceration, (iii)Putrefaction, and (iv) Mummification.


Q. 20

Elderlyindividual living alone in a temperate zone is found dead one morning & electric heater is found to be damaged. The rigor mortis will set in‑

 A

Earlier than expected

 B

Later than expected

 C

Will not set in

 D

No change

Q. 20

Elderlyindividual living alone in a temperate zone is found dead one morning & electric heater is found to be damaged. The rigor mortis will set in‑

 A

Earlier than expected

 B

Later than expected

 C

Will not set in

 D

No change

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Later than expected

  • In temperate climate, rigor mortis begins late and lasts longer than in tropical countries.

Rigor mortis (Cadaveric Rigidity or Death Stiffening)

  • It is defined as contraction, stiffening, shortenig and opacity of muscles after death. It occurs after molecular (cellular) death.
  • In tropical countries (e.g. india), it begins 1-2 hours after death, takes further 2 hours to develop, and lasts for 18-36 hours in summer and 24-48 hours in winter. In temperate countries, it begins in 3-6 hours, takes further 2­3 hours to develop and lasts for 2-3 days.
  • All muscles of body are involved, i.e. voluntary or involuntary.
  • However, it does not start in all muscles simultaneously (nysten’s rule). Involuntary muscles (heart) are involved first than voluntary muscles. Sequence of muscles involvement is as follows : Heart> upper eyelid> neck >jaw > face > chest > upper limb > abdomen > lower limb > finger and toes.
  • It passes off in the same order in which it has appeared.
  • Factors affecting rigor mortis
  1. Rigor mortis is not seen : (1) Fetus < 7 months, (ii) Septiccemic conditions.
  2. Appears early and passes off quickly : (i) Chronic diseases (TB, cancer, typhoid, cholera), (ii) Convulsive disorders (strychnine poisoning ), (iii) Violent deaths (cut throat, electrocution, lightening).
  3. Early onset and last longer : Drowning and strychnine poisoning
  4. Early onset : Organophosphate poisoning and fatigue/exhaustion before death
  5. Delayed onset : Asphyxia, apoplexy, severe hemorrhage, pneumonia and paralysis of muscles.
  6. Lasts longer or delayed disappearance : (i) CO poisoning, (ii) Arsenic poisoning
  7. Early disappearance : Widespread bacterial infection, e.g., gas gangrene.

Q. 21

All are true regarding muscular changes after death except ‑

 A

Rigor mortis occurs 1-2 hours after the death

 B

Cadaveric spasm involves involuntary muscles

 C

Rigor mortis involves voluntary muscles

 D

Rigor mortis involves involuntary muscles

Q. 21

All are true regarding muscular changes after death except ‑

 A

Rigor mortis occurs 1-2 hours after the death

 B

Cadaveric spasm involves involuntary muscles

 C

Rigor mortis involves voluntary muscles

 D

Rigor mortis involves involuntary muscles

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Cadaveric spasm involves involuntary muscles

Quiz In Between



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