Somatic ,molecular and Sudden Death.

Somatic ,molecular and Sudden Death.

Q. 1

True about Molecular death:

 A

Same as cellular death

 B

Same as cellular death as indicated by rigor mortis

 C

Indicated by stopping of heart function and flat ECG

 D

a and b

Q. 1

True about Molecular death:

 A

Same as cellular death

 B

Same as cellular death as indicated by rigor mortis

 C

Indicated by stopping of heart function and flat ECG

 D

a and b

Ans. D

Explanation:

A i.e. Same as cellular death; B i.e. Same as cellular death as indicated by rigor mortis


Q. 2

All are features of somatic death, except:      

NEET 14

 A

Cessation of respiration

 B

Cessation of heart

 C

Non-responding muscles

 D

No response to external stimuli

Q. 2

All are features of somatic death, except:      

NEET 14

 A

Cessation of respiration

 B

Cessation of heart

 C

Non-responding muscles

 D

No response to external stimuli

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. Non-responding muscles


Q. 3

Molecular death is:         

PGI 10; Kerala 11

 A

Complete and irreversible cessation of brain, heart and lungs function

 B

Death of individual tissues and cells after somatic death

 C

Total loss of EEG activity, but heart is functioning

 D

Vitals functions are at low pitch that cannot be detected by clinical examination

Q. 3

Molecular death is:         

PGI 10; Kerala 11

 A

Complete and irreversible cessation of brain, heart and lungs function

 B

Death of individual tissues and cells after somatic death

 C

Total loss of EEG activity, but heart is functioning

 D

Vitals functions are at low pitch that cannot be detected by clinical examination

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. Death of individual tissues and cells after somatic death

Quiz In Between


Q. 4

Sudden death occurring after maxillary sinus irrigation is due to:      

DNB 10

 A

Fat embolism

 B

Pulmonary embolism

 C

Air embolism

 D

Maxillary artery thrombosis

Q. 4

Sudden death occurring after maxillary sinus irrigation is due to:      

DNB 10

 A

Fat embolism

 B

Pulmonary embolism

 C

Air embolism

 D

Maxillary artery thrombosis

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. Air embolism


Q. 5

Cause of sudden death in cold water due to method shown in photograph is ? 

 A

Asphyxia.

 B

Loss of consciousness.

 C

Head injury.

 D

Vagal inhibition.

Q. 5

Cause of sudden death in cold water due to method shown in photograph is ? 

 A

Asphyxia.

 B

Loss of consciousness.

 C

Head injury.

 D

Vagal inhibition.

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans:D.)Vagal inhibition.

The mode of death shown in the picture above represents drowning in cold water.

TYPES OF DROWNING

Wet Drowning

  • In this the water is inhaled into lungs . This is of two types, i.e. Fresh water and Salt water drowning.
    • Haemodilatation (Fresh water drowning)
    • Haemoconcentration (Salt water drowning)

 Dry Drowning

  • Water does not enter the lungs, but death results from immediate sustained laryngeal spasm due to inrush of water into the nasopharynx or larynx.

Secondary Drowning or Near Drowning/Postimmersion Syndrome

  • Near Drowning is defined as initial survival at least beyond 24 hours of an individual after suffocation due to submersion in fluid. It does not necessarily lead to long-term survival and is associated with secondary complications, which require further medical management.

Immersion Syndrome or Hydrocution

  • Hydrocution or immersion syndrome refers to sudden death in water due to vagal inhibition as a result of:
    • cold water stimulating the nerve endings of the surface of the body
    • horizontal entry into the water with a consequent strike on the epigastrium
    • cold water entering eardrums, nasal passage, and the pharynx and larynx which cause mucosal nerve ending stimulation.

Q. 6

All are signs of somatic death except ‑

 A

Cessation of respiration

 B

Cessation of heart

 C

Non-responding muscles

 D

No response to external stimuli

Q. 6

All are signs of somatic death except ‑

 A

Cessation of respiration

 B

Cessation of heart

 C

Non-responding muscles

 D

No response to external stimuli

Ans. C

Explanation:

  Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Non-responding muscles

  • Death denotes death of human being (46 IPC). It is defined as cessation of life or cesation to exist. Death is of two types (1) somatic death (systemic death or clinical death) and (2) molecular death (cellular death).

Somatic death (systemic death or clinical death)

  • It is the complete and irreversible stoppage of the circulation, respiration and brain functions (bishop’s tripod of life). Somatic death is associated with immediate signs of death :‑
  1. Permanent and complete cessation of function of brain and flat electric EEG with no response to external stimuli; i.e. brain death.
  2. Permanent and complete cessation of function of heart and flat ECG.
  3. Permanent and complete cessation of function of lungs.
  • Somatic death is due to stopped aerobic processes. However, anaerobic enzymatic processes are still continuing, hence (i) muscles still respond to mechanical, electrical and thermal stimuli, (ii) pupils still respond to miotics and mydriatics.

Molecular death (cellular death)

  • It occurs after somatic death. It refers to death of all individual cells. It occurs when even anaerobic processes stop, due to non availability of ATP. At this stage :
  1. Muscles do not respond to stimuli.
  2. Pupils do not respond to stimuli or drugs.
  3. There are early signs and late signs of death :
  • Early signs : Changes in skin and eye, cooling of the body, post-mortem lividity, changes in muscles (e.g. primary relaxation, rigor mortis).
  • Late signs : Decomposition (putrefaction), adipocere fromation and mummification.

4.  Molecular death of various organs occur at different intervals after somatic death :

  1. Nervous tissue —> After 5 minutes.
  2. Liver —> After 15 minutes.
  3. Heart —> After 45 minutes.
  4. Kidney —> After 1 hours.
  5. Muscles —> After 3 hours.
  6. Cornea —> After 6 hours.
  7. Blood After 6 hours.

Quiz In Between



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