Tag: Immunostimulants

Immunostimulants

IMMUNOSTIMULANTS

Q. 1 Relative to filgrastim (G-CSF), sargramostim (GM-CSF)
 A Has greater  oral bioavailability
 B Is more  likely  to cause   thrombocytopenia 
 C Is more  likely  to elicit  an allergic reaction
 D Stimulates production of a wider  variety  of hematopoietic stem  cells
Q. 1 Relative to filgrastim (G-CSF), sargramostim (GM-CSF)
 A Has greater  oral bioavailability
 B Is more  likely  to cause   thrombocytopenia 
 C Is more  likely  to elicit  an allergic reaction
 D Stimulates production of a wider  variety  of hematopoietic stem  cells
Ans. D

Explanation:

Stimulates production of a wider variety of hematopoietic stem cells

GM-CSF  has  wider  biologic  activity  than  G-CSF; it stimulates  early myeloid stem cells in addition to cells destined become neutrophils.


Q. 2

Imiquimod is administered by which route:

 A

Topical

 B

Inhalation

 C

Intranasal

 D

None of the above

Q. 2

Imiquimod is administered by which route:

 A

Topical

 B

Inhalation

 C

Intranasal

 D

None of the above

Ans. A

Explanation:

Imiquimod is an immune response modifier shown to be effective in the topical treatment of external genital and perianal warts 
 
Ref: Katzung 11th edition Chapter 49.

Q. 3

Levamisole is used as all except –

 A

Single dose in ascariasis

 B

Immunostimulant

 C

Paralysis of worms by depolarisation

 D

Immunodepressant in high doses

Q. 3

Levamisole is used as all except –

 A

Single dose in ascariasis

 B

Immunostimulant

 C

Paralysis of worms by depolarisation

 D

Immunodepressant in high doses

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d’ i.e., Immunodepressant in high doses

Levamisol

o Levamisole is an immunomodulator – restores depressed T cell function -3 Immunostimulant (not immunodepressant).

o Single dose of levamisol can be used in ascariasis. Other uses —> A. duodenal (less active against N. americana).

o It causes tonic paralysis (depolarization) by stimulating ganglia.

Quiz In Between


Q. 4

All of the following is true about “Imiquimod” except-

 A

Direct antiviral activity

 B

Indirect antiviral

 C

Antitumor activity

 D

It release cytokines

Q. 4

All of the following is true about “Imiquimod” except-

 A

Direct antiviral activity

 B

Indirect antiviral

 C

Antitumor activity

 D

It release cytokines

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Antitumor activity

o Imiquimod is a immunomodulatory agent that is effective for topical treatment of Condylomata accuminata and other dermatological conditions.

o It lacks direct antiviral or antiproliferative effects in vitro but rather induces cytokines and chemokines with antiviral and immunomodulating effects.

o Imiquimod shows antiviral activity in animal models after systemic or topical administration.


Q. 5

All are true about levamisole except –

 A

Acts as an immunostimulator

 B

Act as an immunodepressor in high doses

 C

Single dose is sufficient for the treatment ofpsoriasis

 D

Acts as antihelminthic by causing depolarization

Q. 5

All are true about levamisole except –

 A

Acts as an immunostimulator

 B

Act as an immunodepressor in high doses

 C

Single dose is sufficient for the treatment ofpsoriasis

 D

Acts as antihelminthic by causing depolarization

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Single dose is sufficient for the treatment of psoriasis

Levamisol

o Levamisol is an antihelminthic drug and causes depolarization by stimulating nicotinic receptors.

o Levamisol also has immunomodulatory action :

i) Immunostimulation at low doses

Immunosuppression at high doses

o Uses

i)           Colorectal carcinoma

ii)          Pediculosis

Psoriasis : slow to act and requires two day therapy per week for prolonged period.


Q. 6

Immunomodulator used in treatment of genital warts is 

 A

ATRA

 B

Podophyllin

 C

Imiquimod

 D

Prednisolone

Q. 6

Immunomodulator used in treatment of genital warts is 

 A

ATRA

 B

Podophyllin

 C

Imiquimod

 D

Prednisolone

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. Imiquimod

Quiz In Between



Immunostimulants

IMMUNOSTIMULANTS


IMMUNOSTIMULANTS

  • Introduction:
    • Immunostimulants/immunostimulators are substances (drugs & nutrients) stimulating immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components.
Drugs included:

1. Levamisole:

  • Uses:
    • For treatment of colorectal carcinoma after surgery – In combination with 5-FU.
    • Also for pediculosis treatment.
    • As an antihelminthic drug via stimulation of ganglionic nicotinic receptors.
  • Major adverse effect – Agranulocytosis.

2. Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG):

  • Viable stain of Mycobacterium bovis.
  • Useful as intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer.

3. Cytokines:

  • Includes interferons, colony stimulating factors (CSF) & various interleukins.
  • Eg: Aldesleukin, Sargramostim, Filgrastim etc.,
  • Aldesleukin – 
    • Recombinant IL-2.
    • Useful in malignant melanoma & renal cell carcinoma
  • Filgrastim – 
    • Recombinant G-CSF.
  • Sargramostim –
    • Recombinant GM-CSF.
    • Useful for chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression.

4. Thalidomide:

  • For treatment of ENL & multiple myeloma.

5. Imiquimod:

  • An immune response modifier.
  • Effective against external genital & peri-anal warts (condyloma acuminata) by topical route.
  • MOA:
    • Acts by releasing IFN-α and cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 & TNF-α).
    • Approved for basal cell carcinoma & actinic keratosis of face and scalp.

Exam Important

  • Immunostimulant drugs include Levamisole, Aldesleukin, Filgrastim, Sargramostim & Imiquimod.
  • Aldesleukin is ecombinant IL-2.
  • Filgrastim is recombinant G-CSF.
  • Sargramostim is recombinant GM-CSF, useful for chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression.
  • Imiquimod is used topically for external genital & peri-anal warts (condyloma acuminata).
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on IMMUNOSTIMULANTS

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