Central Dogma Of Molecular Biology

CENTRAL DOGMA OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY


Central  Dogma  Of  Molecular Biology 

  • The flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein is ter med the “central dogma” of molecular biology.
  • It is descriptive of all organisms, with the exception of some viruses that have RNA as the repository of their genetic information.
  • DNA stores genetic information:- Information about amino acid sequence of all the proteins is present in the form of genesin DNA. The entire genetic material present in the DNA of an organism is known as genome.The important role of DNA in transfer of information in living cells is called central dogma of molecular biology.
  • According to the central dogma, information flows from DNA to RNA to protein. This occurs in three step:

                   1) DNA replication.

                   2) Transcription

                   3) TransIation

  •  In DNA replication there is copying of parent DNA to form daughter DNA molecules having nucleotide sequence indentical to those of the parent DNA.
  • In Transcription there is the process in which the genetic messages in DNA are rewritten in the form of RNA. In simple words, Synthesis of RNA from DNA is called transtiption (flow of information lromDNA to RNA).
  • In translation, the genetic message coded by RNA is translated by the ribosomes into the protein structure, i.e.synthesis of proteinfrom RNA.
  • Biosynthesis of protein is under direct control of DNA in most cases or else under the control of genetic RNA where DNA is absent. Sequences of bases in a particular segment of a polynucleotide chain will determine the sequence of amino acids in a particular polypeptide.
  • The relationship is popularly known as central dogma. Flow of information is one way i.e., from DNA, information is transferred to RNA (mRNA) and from RNA to protein.
  • Temin (1970) reported that retroviruses operate a central dogma reverse or teminism inside host cells. Genomic RNA of these viruses first synthesizes DNA through reverse transcription. DNA then transfers information to messenger RNA which takes part in translation of the coded information to form polypeptide.

1) One way flow of information (central dogma)

DNA(transcription) → RNA (translation) → proteins

(2) Reverse flow of transcription information

DNA(transcription) ↔RNA(translation) → proteins

Exam Important
  • In translation, the genetic message coded by RNA is translated by the ribosomes into the protein structure, i.e.synthesis of proteinfrom RNA.
  • Biosynthesis of protein is under direct control of DNA in most cases or else under the control of genetic RNA where DNA is absent. Sequences of bases in a particular segment of a polynucleotide chain will determine the sequence of amino acids in a particular polypeptide.
  • The relationship is popularly known as central dogma. Flow of information is one way i.e., from DNA, information is transferred to RNA (mRNA) and from RNA to protein.
  • Temin (1970) reported that retroviruses operate a central dogma reverse or teminism inside host cells. Genomic RNA of these viruses first synthesizes DNA through reverse transcription. DNA then transfers information to messenger RNA which takes part in translation of the coded information to form polypeptide.

(1) One way flow of information (central dogma)

DNA(transcription) → RNA (translation) → proteins

(2) Reverse flow of transcription information

DNA(transcription) ↔RNA(translation) → proteins

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