Isolation

Isolation


Isolation

  • Isolation is defined as “separation. for the period of communicability of infected person or animals from others in such places under such conditions, as to prevent or limit the direct or indirect transmission of the infectious agent from those infected to those who are susceptible, or who may spread the agent to others”.
  • In simple words “Isolation separates those who are already ill or infected from those who are not for the period of communicability”.
For which diseases isolation is beneficial?
  • Isolation has a distinctive value in the control of some infectious diseases, e.g.,
  •  diphtheria, cholera, streptococcal respiratory disease, pneumonic plague.
  • Isolation is strictly recommended for pneumonic plague
  • In some diseases where there is a large component of subclinical infection and carrier state, even the most rigid isolation will not prevent the spread of disease, e.g.
  • polio, hepatitis and typhoid fever.

Why would people be placed in isolation?

  • Isolating sick people prevents the spread or transmission of disease to susceptible hosts.

Where would sick people be isolated?

  • The location of isolation depends on how sick the person is. Isolation might take place at home, but if the illness is more serious or if the patient is already hospitalized, isolation might take place in the hospital.

How long would people be isolated?

  • The duration of isolation will depend on the severity of illness and how quickly individual recovers. o It is usually for the period of communicability.

Periods of isolation recommended

Disease 

Duration of isolation

Chickenpox 

Until all lesions cursted; usually about 6 days after onset of rash

Measles 

From the onset of catarrhal stage through 3rd day of rash

German measles 

None , except that women in the first trimester or sexually active, non-immune women in childbearing years not using contraceptive measures should not be exposed.

Cholera, diphtheria

3 days after tetracyclines started, until 48 hours of antibiotics (or negative culturesafter treatment)

Shigellosis 

Until 3 consecutive negative stool cultures.

Salmonellosis

3

Hepatitis A

3 weeks

Influenza

3 days after onset

Polio 

2 weeks adult, 6 weeks paediatric.

Tuberculosis 

Until 3 weeks of effective chemotherapy (sputum +)

Herpes zoster

6 days after onset of rash

Mumps 

Until swelling subsides

Pertussis

4 weeks or until paroxysms cease Meningococcal

meningitis

Until the first 6 hours of effective

Streptococcal

antibiotic therapy are completed Pharyngitis

  • Isolation has failed in the control of disease such as leprosy, TB & STD. In the control of these diseases, the concept of physical isolation has been replaced by chemical isolation, i.e., rapid treatment of cases in their own-homes and rendering them non-infectious as quickly as possible.
Exam Question
 
  • “Isolation separates those who are already ill or infected from those who are not for the period of communicability”.
  • For which diseases isolation is beneficial?
  • Isolation has a distinctive value in the control of some infectious diseases, e.g.,
  •  diphtheria, cholera, streptococcal respiratory disease, pneumonic plague.
  • Isolation is strictly recommended for pneumonic plague
  • In some diseases where there is a large component of subclinical infection and carrier state, even the most rigid isolation will not prevent the spread of disease, e.g.
  • polio, hepatitis and typhoid fever.

Periods of isolation recommended

Disease                                                           

Duration of isolation

Chickenpox

Until all lesions cursted; usually about 6 days after onset of rash

Measles                                                    

From the onset of catarrhal stage through 3rd day of rash

German measles

None , except that women in the first trimester or sexually active, non-immune women in childbearing years not using contraceptive measures should not be exposed.

Cholera, diphtheria

3 days after tetracyclines started, until 48 hours of antibiotics (or negative cultures after treatment)

Shigellosis

Until 3 consecutive negative stool cultures.

Salmonellosis

3

Hepatitis A 

3 weeks

Influenza

3 days after onset

Polio

2 weeks adult, 6 weeks paediatric.

Tuberculosis 

Until 3 weeks of effective chemotherapy (sputum +)

Herpes zoster

6 days after onset of rash

Mumps 

Until swelling subsides

Pertussis

4 weeks or until paroxysms cease Meningococcal

meningitis 

Until the first 6 hours of effective

Streptococcal

antibiotic therapy are completed Pharyngitis

Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Isolation

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