Disaster Management

Disaster Management

Q. 1

 

Which of the following is not a fundamental aspect of disaster management?

 A

Disaster mitigation

 B

Disaster preparedness

 C

Disaster response

 D

Disaster propagation

Q. 1

 

Which of the following is not a fundamental aspect of disaster management?

 A

Disaster mitigation

 B

Disaster preparedness

 C

Disaster response

 D

Disaster propagation

Ans. D

Explanation:

Fundamental aspects of disaster management include disaster mitigation, disaster preparedness, and disaster response.

Ref: Park, 21st Edition, Page 736.

Q. 2

All vaccines are given in disaster,except ‑

 A

Cholera

 B

Influenza

 C

Measles

 D

Tetanus

Q. 2

All vaccines are given in disaster,except ‑

 A

Cholera

 B

Influenza

 C

Measles

 D

Tetanus

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Cholera

Vaccines recommended in disasters

o Following vaccines are recommended

1)     Children < 10 years :- DPT, inactivated polio (IPV), H.influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis B, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella vaccine, influenza, hepatitis A and rotavirus.

2)     Children and adolescents (11-18 years):- Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV), Influenza.

3)     Adults (>18 years):- Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), and influenza.

o Vaccination against typhoid and cholera is not recommended.


Q. 3

Natural disaster causing maximum deaths:

 A

Hydrological

 B

Meterological

 C

Geological

 D

Fires

Q. 3

Natural disaster causing maximum deaths:

 A

Hydrological

 B

Meterological

 C

Geological

 D

Fires

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans is ‘a’ i.e. Hydrological 

Disaster

A “disaster” can be difined as ‘any occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health and health .services on a scale stifflylent to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area’.

o A “hazard” can be defined as any phenomenon that has the potential to cause disruption or damage to people and their environment.

  • There are may types of disasters such as earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tidal waves, landslides, volcanic eruptions, fires, snow storm, building collapse, toxicologic accidents and warfare etc.

o Hydrological disasters (i.e. floods, tsunamis) are associated with causing maximum death toll. Geological disasters: includes Earthquakes, Avalanches & Volcanic eruptions

Meterological disasters: include Cyclones, Tornadoes, Hailstorm, Drought, Heat waves, Blizzards (Blizzards are severe winter storms characterized by low temperature, strong winds, and heavy snow).


Q. 4

Which of the following is the nodal centre for disaster management –

 A

PHC

 B

CHC

 C

Control room

 D

None

Q. 4

Which of the following is the nodal centre for disaster management –

 A

PHC

 B

CHC

 C

Control room

 D

None

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is `c’ i.e., Control room

o The control room is the nodal center in terms of disaster management.

o The control room plays a vital role in the disaster management activation.

o It coordinates the flow of information with respect to activities associated with relief operations.

  • During normal times it maintains a systematic data-based information of the resources available, important Government and non-Government officials, local bodies and NGOs.
  • During a crisis (disaster) it is expected to function as a center for decision making and to keep constant touch with the affected areas to provide organized relief and rescue operations immediately after occurrence or receipt warning of disaster.

o There will be separate control rooms at the block level.



Q. 5

Which of the following is not a fundamental aspect of Disaster management ?

 A

Disaster response

 B

Disaster mitigation

 C

Disaster awakening

 D

Disaster preparedness

Q. 5

Which of the following is not a fundamental aspect of Disaster management ?

 A

Disaster response

 B

Disaster mitigation

 C

Disaster awakening

 D

Disaster preparedness

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is `c’ i.e. Disaster awakening 

o There are three fundamental aspects of disaster management: (i) Disaster response; (ii) Disaster preparedness; (iii) Disaster mitigation.



Q. 6

Epidemics after disaster are caused by all except‑

 A

Leptospirosis

 B

Rickettsiosis

 C

Leishmaniasis

 D

Acute respiratory infection

Q. 6

Epidemics after disaster are caused by all except‑

 A

Leptospirosis

 B

Rickettsiosis

 C

Leishmaniasis

 D

Acute respiratory infection

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is `c’ i.e., Leishmaniasis 

Disease common in Post-disaster Phase

o Gastroenteritis (MC)

o Acute respiratory tract infections (Pneumonia) o Leptospirosis

  • Rickettsiosis
  • Rabies
  • Equine encephalitis

Q. 7

Black colour code is used in four colour code system of triage management in disaster for-

 A

Ambulatory patients

 B

Low priority patients

 C

Dead patients

 D

High priority patients

Q. 7

Black colour code is used in four colour code system of triage management in disaster for-

 A

Ambulatory patients

 B

Low priority patients

 C

Dead patients

 D

High priority patients

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Dead patient


Q. 8

Which of the following is the nodal centre for disaster management –

 A

PHC

 B

CHC

 C

Control room

 D

None

Q. 8

Which of the following is the nodal centre for disaster management –

 A

PHC

 B

CHC

 C

Control room

 D

None

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is `e’ i.e., Control room

o The control room is the nodal center in terms of disaster management.

o The control room plays a vital role in the disaster management activation.

o It coordinates the flow of information with respect to activities associated with relief operations.

  • During normal times it maintains a systematic data-based information of the resources available, important Government and non-Government officials, local bodies and NGOs.
  • During a crisis (disaster) it is expected to function as a center for decision making and to keep constant touch with the affected areas to provide organized relief and rescue operations immediately after occurrence or receipt warning of disaster.

o There will be separate control rooms at the block level.



Q. 9

Which of the following is not a fundamental aspect of Disaster management ?

 A

Disaster response

 B

Disaster mitigation

 C

Disaster awakening

 D

Disaster preparedness

Q. 9

Which of the following is not a fundamental aspect of Disaster management ?

 A

Disaster response

 B

Disaster mitigation

 C

Disaster awakening

 D

Disaster preparedness

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is `c’ i.e. Disaster awakening 


Q. 10

Epidemics after disaster are caused by all except‑

 A

Leptospirosis

 B

Rickettsiosis

 C

Leishmaniasis

 D

Acute respiratory infection

Q. 10

Epidemics after disaster are caused by all except‑

 A

Leptospirosis

 B

Rickettsiosis

 C

Leishmaniasis

 D

Acute respiratory infection

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is `c’ i.e., Leishmaniasis 

Disease common in Post-disaster Phase

o Gastroenteritis (MC)

o Acute respiratory tract infections (Pneumonia) o Leptospirosis

  • Rickettsiosis
  • Rabies
  • o Equine encephalitis

Q. 11

Black colour code is used in four colour code system of triage management in disaster for-

 A

Ambulatory patients

 B

Low priority patients

 C

Dead patients

 D

High priority patients

Q. 11

Black colour code is used in four colour code system of triage management in disaster for-

 A

Ambulatory patients

 B

Low priority patients

 C

Dead patients

 D

High priority patients

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Dead patient


Q. 12

In triage system for disaster management, which of the following color codes denote ‘high priority treatment’ and ‘transfer’:           

September 2012

 A

Red

 B

Blue

 C

Black

 D

Yellow

Q. 12

In triage system for disaster management, which of the following color codes denote ‘high priority treatment’ and ‘transfer’:           

September 2012

 A

Red

 B

Blue

 C

Black

 D

Yellow

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans: A i.e. Red

Triage

  • It is a tool first responders and medical personnel use during a mass casualty incident.
  • With the aide of the triage tags, the first-arriving personnel are able to effectively and efficiently distribute the limited resources and provide the necessary immediate care for the victims until more help arrives.
  • Red one needs immediate attention.

Q. 13

In disaster situation, how many colour codes are used for triage:

September 2009

 A

1

 B

2

 C

3

 D

None

Q. 13

In disaster situation, how many colour codes are used for triage:

September 2009

 A

1

 B

2

 C

3

 D

None

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. D: None of the above

Triage in a non-combat situation is conducted much the same as in civilian medicine.

A battlefield situation, however, requires medics and corpsmen to rank casualties for precedence. The 4 triage categories (with corresponding color codes), in precedence, are:

  • Red/ Immediate: The casualty requires immediate medical attention and will not survive if not seen soon. Any compromise to the casualty’s respiration, hemorrhage control, or shock control could be fatal.
  • Yellow/Delayed: The casualty requires medical attention within 6 hours. Injuries are potentially life-threatening, but can wait until the immediate casualties are stabilized and evacuated.
  • Green/ Minimal: “Walking wounded,” the casualty requires medical attention when all higher priority patients have been evacuated, and may not require stabilization or monitoring.
  • Black/ Expectant: The casualty is expected not to reach higher medical support alive without compromising the treatment of higher priority patients. Care should not be abandoned, spare any remaining time and resources after Immediate and Delayed patients have been treated.

Q. 14

Black colour code is used in four colour code system of triage management in disaster for:          

March 2011

 A

Ambulatory patients

 B

Low priority patients

 C

Dead patients

 D

High priority patients

Q. 14

Black colour code is used in four colour code system of triage management in disaster for:          

March 2011

 A

Ambulatory patients

 B

Low priority patients

 C

Dead patients

 D

High priority patients

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. C: Dead patients

Black colour in triage indicates dead/ moribund persons Triage

  • After disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes and train wrecks, triage often includes a system of color coding.
  • The code changes in different countries and regions but four colors are almost universal:
  • Black indicates dead,
  • Red indicates that the patient needs immediate attention,
  • Green indicates that a patient has only minor injuries.
  • Yellow signals medium priority
  • Sometimes the coding medium is as simple as rolls of colored tape.
  • A person with some medical training–and a checklist–goes among the injured and wraps a strip of tape around the leg of an injured person.
  • The checklists for disaster situations tend to be simple and omit injuries that might be hidden by clothing.
  • Most ambulances are required to carry disaster triage checklists and color coding material

Q. 15

Residual chlorine level after disaster like flood ‑

 A

0.7 mg/litre

 B

1.5 mg/litre

 C

2 mg/litre

 D

3 mg/litre

Q. 15

Residual chlorine level after disaster like flood ‑

 A

0.7 mg/litre

 B

1.5 mg/litre

 C

2 mg/litre

 D

3 mg/litre

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., 0.7 mg/litre

Principles of chlorination

  • Water should be clear and free from turbidity. Turbidity impedes efficient chlorination.
  • The chlorine demand of the water should be estimated. It is the amount of chlorine that is needed to destroy bacteria and to oxidize all the organic matter and ammoniacal substances present in water. Chlorine demand of water is the difference between the amount of chlorine added to the water and the amount of residual chlorine remaining at the end of specific period of contact (usually 60 minutes) at a given temperature and pH of the water.
  • The point at which the chlorine demand of the water is met is called break point chlorination. If further chlorine is added beyond break point, free chlorine begins to appear in water.
  • The presence of free residual chlorine for a contact period of at least one hour is esential to kill bacteria and virus.
  • The minimum recommended concentration of free chlorine is 0.5mg/1 for one hour. This free residual chlorine provides margin of safety against subsequent microbial contamination.
  • The sum of the chlorine demand of the specific water plus the free residual chlorine of .5 mg/L constitutes the correct does of chlorine to be applied.
  • It is worth noting here that recommended residual chlorine level for drinking water is 0.5 mg/ litre, while for swimming pool sanitation it is 1.0 mg/ litre and for water bodies & post disaster it is 0.7 mg/litre.

Q. 16

Natural disasters are all except ‑

 A

Floods

 B

Tornedo

 C

Lightening strike

 D

Accidental radioactive gas leak from factory

Q. 16

Natural disasters are all except ‑

 A

Floods

 B

Tornedo

 C

Lightening strike

 D

Accidental radioactive gas leak from factory

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d’ i.e., Accidental radioactive gas leak from factory

A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.

Accidental radioactive gas leak from factory is most commonly a result of human or mechanical error and thus not a natural disaster.


Q. 17

Natural disaster causing maximum deaths:

 A

Hydrological

 B

Meteorological

 C

Geological

 D

Climatological

Q. 17

Natural disaster causing maximum deaths:

 A

Hydrological

 B

Meteorological

 C

Geological

 D

Climatological

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. a. Hydrological


Q. 18

All of the following ist-disaster period except:

 A

Leishmaniasis

 B

Leptospirosis

 C

Rickettsiosis

 D

Acute respiratory infections

Q. 18

All of the following ist-disaster period except:

 A

Leishmaniasis

 B

Leptospirosis

 C

Rickettsiosis

 D

Acute respiratory infections

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. a. Leishmaniasis

Post-disaster Period:

  • Increased incidence of acute respiratory infections is also common in displaced population.
  • Vector-borne diseases will not appear immediately but may take several weeks to reach epidemic levels.
  • Displacement of domesticated and wild animals increases the risk of transmission of zoonoses.
  • Some of these animals may be reservoirs of infections such as leptospirosis, rickettsiosis, etc.

Post-disaster Period

  • Outbreak of gastroenteritis is the most commonly reported disease in the post-disaster periodQ. Increased incidence of acute respiratory infections is also common in displaced population.
  • Vector-borne diseases will not appear immediately but may take several weeks to reach epidemic levelsQ. Displacement of domesticated and wild animals increases the risk of transmission of zoonosesQ. Some of these animals may be reservoirs of infections such as leptospirosis, rickettsiosis, etc.
  • Rickkettsial diseases are also seen post-disaster especially in refugee camps.
  • Wild animals are reservoirs of infections, which can be fatal to man such as equine encephalitis, rabiesQ, and infections still unknown to humans.

Q. 19

Which of the following is seen in recovery phase after disaster except ‑

 A

Rehabilitation

 B

Reconstruction

 C

Response

 D

Preparedness

Q. 19

Which of the following is seen in recovery phase after disaster except ‑

 A

Rehabilitation

 B

Reconstruction

 C

Response

 D

Preparedness

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d’ i.e., Preparedness 



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