HYT Module

Corynebacterium Diphtheria: Clinical manifestation, Complications, Diagnosis and Treatment

Corynebacterium Diphtheria: Clinical manifestation, Complications, Diagnosis and Treatment Introduction Most common in children of 2-5 years. Incubation period 2-5days Mode of transmission Droplet spread Types Faucial(commonest ) Laryngeal Nasal Conjunctival Otitic Vulvovaginal Cutaneous mainly around mouth and nose Respiratory Diphtheria MC type Tonsillopharyngeal (Faucial) Symptoms Fever sore throat Weakness Malignant or hypertoxic or bull neck …

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Shigella : Clinical Findings, Pathogenesis, Lab Diagnosis and Treatment

Shigella : Clinical Findings, Pathogenesis, Lab Diagnosis and Treatment  Introduction: SOURCE: MAN: CASE OR CARRIER MODE OF SPREAD: CONTAMINATED FINGERS, FOOD, FLIES, FOMITES PERSON TO PERSON TRANSMISSION Gut pathology is due to toxin INFECTIVE DOSE: 10-100 VIABLE BACILLI HIGHEST CONCENTRATION IN STOOL DURING EARLY/ACUTE INFECTION: 103 TO 109 VIABLE BACILLI PER GRAM OF STOOL PATHOGENESIS …

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Clostridium tetani : Diagnosis, treatment and Prevention

Clostridium tetani : Diagnosis, treatment and Prevention Diagnosis of tetanus Based entirely on clinical findings:  History of an injury Particularly one in which either soil or fecal material has been introduced 6-12 days before the onset of typical clinical findings. Wound should be cultured in suspected cases. Other laboratory findings may be – Leukocytosis Muscle enzyme levels …

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Treponema Pallidum: Diagnosis and Treatment

Treponema Pallidum: Diagnosis and Treatment Diagnosis: 1.Demonstration of Organism Darkfield microscopic examination of lesion exudate such as chancre of primary syphilis  Immunofluorescence or immunohistochemical method more reliable. 2. Serological tests for Syphilis: Serologic testing is considered the standard method of detection for all stages of syphilis.  (a) Non-treponemal tests  RPR (Rapid plasma reagin) VDRL VDRL principle: …

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Dementia

DEMENTIA DEMENTIA Introduction: Defined as a progressive impairment of cognitive functions in absence of any disturbances of consciousness. Prevalence: Increases with age. 5% in population older than 65 years; 20-40% in older than 85 years.  Symptoms: 1. Cognitive impairment: Characterized by 4 A’s: amnesia, aphasia, apraxia & agnosia. Amnesia:  Memory impairment. Can be episodic (memory for events) & semantic …

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Amnestic Disorders

AMNESTIC DISORDERS AMNESTIC DISORDERS Broad category including variety of conditions presenting amnestic syndrome. Features: Characterized by inability to form new memories (anterograde amnesia) & inability to recall previously remembered knowledge (retrograde amnesia). Short-term & recent memory – Impaired with preservation of remote & immediate memory. Causes: Major causes: Thiamine deficiency (Korsakoff syndrome). Hypoglycemia. Primary brain …

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Dyssomnia & Parasomnia

DYSSOMNIA & PARASOMNIA DYSSOMNIA & PARASOMNIA I) Dysomnia Introduction: Characterized by abnormality in duration or quality of sleep. Subtypes: Insomnia. Hypersomnia. 1. Insomnia: Features: Decreased sleep. Difficulty in initiation of sleep. Difficulty in maintenance of sleep. Frequent awakening during night. Early morning awakening. Nonrestorative sleep. Not feeling refreshed in morning due to poor quality of …

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Compilation Of Psychiatric Disorders In Pediatric Patients

COMPILATION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS COMPILATION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS Important psychiatric disorders in pediatric patients include, Conduct disorder. Oppositional defiant disorder. Specific disorders of scholastic skills – Learning disorders. Conduct disorder: Associated with unsatisfactory family relationships & failure at school. Later stages lead to antisocial personality disorder (dissocial personality disorder). Features: …

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Mental Retardation

MENTAL RETARDATION MENTAL RETARDATION Introduction: Condition characterized by incomplete development of intellectual functions & adaptive skills (skills for successful Iife). Intelligence is measured by Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Calculation method: IQ = Mental age/Chronological age x 100  Maximum denominator – 15 (even for elderly assessment). IQ less than 70 – Considered as “mental retardation”. Category & …

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Electroconvulsive Therapy (Ect)

ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT) ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT) Introduction: A type of convulsive therapies used for psychiatric disorders treatment. Usage of electricity as an agent inducing convulsions – Referred as “electroconvulsive therapy.” Types: A. Direct ECT: Anesthetic agents & muscle relaxants not used. Generalized convulsions produced result in fractures or teeth dislocations. Higher incidence of side effects – Rarely …

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