Tag: Muscles of tongue

Muscles of tongue

Muscles of tongue


INTRINSIC MUSCLES:
  1. Superior Longitudinal
  2. Inferior Longitudinal
  3. Transverse
  4. Vertical
EXTRINSIC MUSCLES:
  1. Styloglossus
  2. Hyoglossus
  3. GenioglossusSafety muscle of tongue)
  4. Palatoglossus

MUSCLES

ORIGIN

INSERTION

ACTION(S)

INNERVATION

Genioglossus

Upper genial tubercle of mandible

Upper fibres: tip of the tongue

Middle fibres: dorsum

Lower fibres: hyoid bone

Upper fibres: retract the tip

Middle fibres: depress the tongue

Lower fibres: pull the posterior part forward

(thus protude the tongue and deviates it to opposite side)

Hypoglossal nerve

Hyoglossus

Greater cornu, front of lateral part of body of hyoid bone

Side of tongue

Depress the tongue

Retracting the protruded tongue

Hypoglossal nerve

Styloglossus

Tip, anterior surface of styloid process

Side of tongue

Pulls the tongue upwards and backwards  during swallowing

Hypoglossal nerve

Palatoglossus

Oral surface of palatine aponeurosis

Side of tongue (junction of oral and pharygeal part)

Pulls up root of tongue, approximates palatoglossal arches, closes oropharyngeal isthmus

Pharyngeal Plexus

Intrinsic muscles

MUSCLES ORIGIN INSERTION ACTION
Superior Longitudinal Submucous fibrous layer below the dorsum of the tongue and lingual septum Extends to the lingual margin


Turns the apex and sides of the tongue

upward to make the dorsum concave

Inferior Longitudinal

(Narrow band close to the inferior surface of the tongue)
 Root of tongue and body of hyoid bone  Apex of tongue Curls the tip inferiorly and shortens the tongue
 Transverse Median fibrous septum  

Fibrous tissue at the margins of tongue


Narrows and elongates the tongue
 

Vertical

 
 Dorsum surface of the borders of the tongue Ventral surface of the borders of the tongue  Flattens and broadens the tongue
Exam Question
 
  • Tongue muscle derived from occipital myotomes.
  • Motor supply to the muscles of the tongue is by Hypoglossal nerve
  • Palatoglossus is only muscle of tongue not supplied by hypoglossal nerve.
  • Platoglossus muscle supplied by vago-accessory complex i.e. through pharyngeal plexus of nerves.
  • Genioglossus is the Safety muscle of tongue.
  • Genioglossus- protude the tongue and deviates it to opposite side.
  • Protrusion of tongue not possible in damage of Genioglossus muscle.
  • Ipsilateral deviation of tongue in XIIth nerve palsy is due to unaltered action of contralateral Genioglossus.
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Muscles of tongue

Muscles of tongue

MUSCLES OF TONGUE

Q. 1

All of the following muscles of tongue are supplied by hypoglossal nerve, EXCEPT?

 A

Palatoglossus

 B

Genioglossus

 C

Geniohyoid

 D

None of the above

Q. 1

All of the following muscles of tongue are supplied by hypoglossal nerve, EXCEPT?

 A

Palatoglossus

 B

Genioglossus

 C

Geniohyoid

 D

None of the above

Ans. A

Explanation:

The muscles of the tongue, with the exception of palatoglossus, are supplied by the hypoglossal nerve. Palatoglossus is supplied via the pharyngeal plexus.


Q. 2

Correct statement(s) about tongue is/are:

 A

Facial nerve supplies fungi from papillae

 B

Glossopharyngeal nerve supplies circumvallate papillae

 C

Genioglossus is the safety muscle

 D

All

Q. 2

Correct statement(s) about tongue is/are:

 A

Facial nerve supplies fungi from papillae

 B

Glossopharyngeal nerve supplies circumvallate papillae

 C

Genioglossus is the safety muscle

 D

All

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. A i.e. Facial nerve supplies fungi from papillae; B i.e. Glossopharyngeal nerve supplies circumvallate papillae ; C i.e. Genioglossus is the safety muscle

–           anterior 2/3 of tongue is supplied by chorda tympani branch of facial nerveQ (carrying taste sensation) & lingual nerveQ (carrying general sensation); posterior 1/3 of tongue is supplied by glossopharyngeal nerveQ (carrying taste & general sensation both); and posterior most tongue in the region of valleculae is supplied by internal laryngeal branch of vagus nerveQ

–                  Except palatoglossus (extrinsic muscle) all muscles of tongue (i.e. all intrinsic muscles eg bilateral superior & inferior longitudinal, transverse & vertical and 3 pairs of extrinsic muscles i.e. genioglossus, hypoglossus & styloglossus/ chondroglossus) are supplied by lzypoglossal nerveQ

Hypoglossal nerve has only motor (but no sensory) supply to tongueQ, so injury to it can not lead to loss of taste or general sensationQ. Injury to hypoglossal nerve present with pure motor tongue features such as ipsilateral muscular


Q. 3

Safety muscle of tongue is:

 A

Styloglossus

 B

Genioglossus

 C

Palatoglossus

 D

Hyoglossus

Q. 3

Safety muscle of tongue is:

 A

Styloglossus

 B

Genioglossus

 C

Palatoglossus

 D

Hyoglossus

Ans. B

Explanation:

  • Genioglossus is the fan-shaped extrinsic tongue muscle that forms the majority of the body of the tongue. Its origin is the mental spine of the mandible and its insertions are the hyoid bone and the dorsum of the tongue. 
  • Contraction of the genioglossus stabilizes and enlarges the portion of the upper airway that is most vulnerable to collapse. A relaxation of the genioglossus and geniohyoideus muscles, especially during REM sleep, is implicated in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA.)
  • Peripheral damage to the hypoglossal nerve can result in deviation of the tongue to the damaged side


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