A. IgG persists for more than 6 months.
B. IgM antibody present at birth.
C. Most common anomalies are hearing and heart defects.
D. Increased risk of congenital malformation if infection occur after 16 weeks.
The disorder shown in the picture above represents congenital rubella.
- Maternal infection in early pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, with resultant congenital rubella. The classic signs of congenital rubella are cataract, heart disease, deafness, and myriad other defects.
- Congenital infection is considered to have occurred if the infant has IgM rubella antibodies shortly after birth or IgG antibodies persists for more than six months by which time maternally derived antibodies would have disappeared.
- The most important factor in the pathogenicity of rubella virus for the fetus is gestational age at the time of infection. Maternal infection during the first trimester leads to fetal infection in – 50% of cases; maternal infection early in the second trimester leads to fetal infection in about one-third of cases.
- Fetal malformations not only are more common after maternal infection in the first trimester but also tend to be more severe and to involve more organ systems. Infection in the second trimester may cause deafness, but those infected after 16 weeks suffer no major abnormality.