Tag: Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy

PSYCHOTHERAPY

Q. 1

Patient of contamination phobia was asked by therapist to follow behind and touch everything he touches in patients house Therapist kept talking quietly & calmly all the time. And the patient was asked to repeat the procedure twice daily. The procedure is

 A

Flooding

 B

Modelling

 C

Positive reinforcement

 D

Aversion therapy

Q. 1

Patient of contamination phobia was asked by therapist to follow behind and touch everything he touches in patients house Therapist kept talking quietly & calmly all the time. And the patient was asked to repeat the procedure twice daily. The procedure is

 A

Flooding

 B

Modelling

 C

Positive reinforcement

 D

Aversion therapy

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. Modelling


Q. 2

All of the following are done in behavior therapy to increase a behavior except:

 A

Punishment

 B

Operant conditioning

 C

Negative reinforcement

 D

Reward

Q. 2

All of the following are done in behavior therapy to increase a behavior except:

 A

Punishment

 B

Operant conditioning

 C

Negative reinforcement

 D

Reward

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Punishment 

Punishment & frustrative-non reward lead to decrease in resultant behavior, whereas both positive & negative reinforcements increases (reinforces) the frequency of a particular response.

Operant conditioning describes how consequences of a behavior lead to an increase or decrease in that behavior. Behavior is increased when it is followed by reward (Positive reinforcement) or removal of unpleasant stimulus (negative reinforcement) and reduced by taking away a positive stimulus (frustrative-non reward) or adding a negative stimulus (punishment).


Q. 3

Agoraphobia treated with

 A

Systemic desensitization

 B

Psychodynamic therapy

 C

Exposure therapy

 D

All

Q. 3

Agoraphobia treated with

 A

Systemic desensitization

 B

Psychodynamic therapy

 C

Exposure therapy

 D

All

Ans. D

Explanation:

A i.e. Systemic desensitization; B i.e. Psychodynamic therapy; C i.e. Exposure therapy


Q. 4

A 22 years old male comes to your office with complains of frequenting checking of doors even when they are locked. He is distressed about this fact. He is subsequently diagnosed to have obsessive compulsive disorder. Consider the following statements:

  1. Repression and reaction formation are the defense mechanisms involved
  2. SSRIs are the drug of choice
  3. Risperidone may be used in SSRI resistant cases to augment the response
  4. Systemic desensitization is the psychotherapy of choice

Which of the above are correct statements?

 A

a & b

 B

b & c

 C

b, c & d

 D

a, b, c & d

Q. 4

A 22 years old male comes to your office with complains of frequenting checking of doors even when they are locked. He is distressed about this fact. He is subsequently diagnosed to have obsessive compulsive disorder. Consider the following statements:

  1. Repression and reaction formation are the defense mechanisms involved
  2. SSRIs are the drug of choice
  3. Risperidone may be used in SSRI resistant cases to augment the response
  4. Systemic desensitization is the psychotherapy of choice

Which of the above are correct statements?

 A

a & b

 B

b & c

 C

b, c & d

 D

a, b, c & d

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans: B. b & c

(Ref Kaplan & Sadock 11/e p406).

  • Frequent checking of door locks – Suggestive of OCD.

Psychological defensive mechanisms:

  • 3 major mechanisms determine form & quality of obsessive-compulsive symptoms & character traits:
  • Isolation, undoing & reaction formation.

Repression:

  • Primary mechanism.
  • Not involved in OCD.

Treatment for OCD:

  • DOC – SSRI (Fluoxetine,fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram).
  • Psychotherapy of choice:
  • Exposure & response prevention rather than systemic desensitization.

Behavior Therapy:

  • Effective as pharmacotherapies in OCD.
  • Treatment of choice for OCD.
  • Conducted in both outpatient & inpatient settings.
  • Patients must be truly committed to improvement.

Principal behavioral approaches:

  • Exposure & response prevention.

Other methods:

  • Desensitization, thought stopping, flooding, implosion therapy & aversive conditioning

Quiz In Between



Psychotherapy

PSYCHOTHERAPY


PSYCHOTHERAPY

  • Treatment of psychiatric disorders by using psychological methods.
  • Most important method – Behavior therapy.

Behavior therapy:

  • Psychological treatment where patient’s maladaptive behaviors changed to improve quality of life.
  • “Behavior therapy” is generic term – Used to describe a variety of specific techniques intended to remove maladaptive behaviors. 

Techniques of behavior therapy: 

  • Systematic desensitization.
  • Therapeutic graded exposure or in vivo exposure (or exposure & response prevention)
  • Flooding (Implosion).
  • Modeling (Participant modeling).
  • Assertiveness training.
  • Social skills training.
  • Aversive conditioning (Aversion therapy).

Systemic desensitization:

  • Based on “reciprocal inhibition” principle.
  • According to this principle, f anxiety-provoking stimulus provided while a person is in relaxed state, the anxiety gets inhibited.
  • Used in treatment of phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorders & certain sexual disorders.

Therapeutic graded exposure or in vivo exposure (or exposure & response prevention):

  • Similar to systematic desensitization except that no relaxation techniques used & real-life situations used.
  • Used in phobias & obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Flooding (Implosion):

  • Patient made to confront feared situation directly, without any hierarchy (as in systematic desensitisation or graded exposure & no relaxation exercises used).

Modeling (Participant modeling):

  • Therapist himself makes contact with phobic stimulus & demonstrates patient.
  • Patient learns by imitation & observation.

Assertiveness training:

  • Person is taught to be assertive (asking for his rights & refusing unjust demands of others).

Social skills training:

  • Involves imparting skills required for dealing with others & living a social life.
  • Used in schizophrenia.

Aversive conditioning (Aversion therapy):

  • Clinical use of classical conditioning principle.
    • An association created between unwanted behavior & painful stimuli —> unwanted behavior ceases.
  • Now rarely used due to ethical considerations.
  • Used for unwanted behaviors treatment (paraphilias).

Indications for behavior therapy:

  • Primarily in anxiety disorders treatment (like phobia, panic disorders).
  • Also used in depression, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, sexual disorders, personality disorders, substance used disorders & schizophrenia.

Exam Important

  • Most important method in psychotherapy is behavior therapy.
  • Techniques used in behavious therapy includes Systematic desensitization, therapeutic graded exposure or in vivo exposure (or exposure & response prevention), flooding (Implosion), modeling (participant modeling), assertiveness training, social skills training & aversive conditioning (aversion therapy).
  • Systemic desensitization is based on “reciprocal inhibition” principle.
  • Systemic desensitization used in treatment of phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorders & certain sexual disorders.
  • Therapeutic graded exposure is also referred as in-vivo exposure/exposure & response prevention.
  • Exposure & response prevention is used in phobia treatment.
  • Aversive conditioning is used for unwanted behaviors treatment (paraphilias).
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